What is the incline? If the slope is greater than a 3:1, consult an engineer. Structures or additional stabilizing procedures will be required if the slope exceeds 2:1.
The retaining wall should be able to withstand the pressure caused by one side of it being higher than the other. This means that it should be at least as high as the difference in height between its top and bottom surfaces. For example, if the top surface is 10 feet above the bottom surface, then the wall should be at least 10 feet high.
If you are building a wall to hold back soil, not just rocks, the requirement changes slightly. The wall should be able to withstand the weight of at least half of its length. So if the wall is 20 feet long, it should be able to support 10 feet of its own weight. This would mean that it needs to be at least 10 feet thick at the base, so that it can sustain such weight.
A retaining wall can be built of many different materials, but the three most common ones are stone, dirt, and concrete. Concrete walls are the most expensive and take the longest to build, while stone walls are the cheapest and fastest to construct.
Slope stability is regarded as a fundamental need for any road built on an inclined plane. The goal of slope stabilization is to minimize rain impact, road runoff velocity, and soil erosion. Stabilizing slopes prevents them from causing harm if they fail.
The two main methods for stabilizing slopes are earthworks and structures. Earthworks include dikes, grooves, terraces, and walls. They are usually the first choice for stabilization because they are inexpensive and easy to construct. Structures include guardrails, crosswalks, fences, and signs. They are more expensive but last longer than earthworks. Guardrails and crosswalks can be used together for added safety. Fences should be at least 4 inches high with steeply angled posts or rails for support. Signs can be posted along roads to warn people of unstable conditions.
Slopes are often stabilized after large amounts of rainfall. This creates a problem because water quickly wears away the ground's ability to hold it back. If a road has not been stabilized yet, heavy traffic may create more damage when it washes out dangerous rocks and dirt that have been exposed by the rain.
The best time to stabilize a road is before it starts receiving much traffic. This will give the crews enough time to do a good job without creating delays for other projects.
Wood retaining walls, interlocking concrete blocks, rock retaining walls, riprap (loose rock) areas, and terracing are all techniques for steep slopes. If you pick wood, ensure sure it has been treated with a wood preservative to keep it from decomposing. Concrete can be poured into forms to make stacked blocks or wall panels, or it can be molded in place using earth as a mold. Stacked block walls are cheaper than other methods but use more material per foot than other solutions.
Retaining walls can be used for steep slopes where you want to create a fence or barrier, such as along a road or property line. The type of soil influences what kind of retention wall will work best. For example, if the soil is very rocky then a stone wall may be your only option. If the soil is very soft then a low-profile wall made of concrete or steel may be better suited to hold back heavy loads. Retaining walls come in many shapes and sizes. The key is that they must be able to withstand the force of gravity acting on them.
Terraces allow for different levels of soil exposure which reduces water erosion. They also help with drainage by allowing water to flow across the surface instead of down the hill. Terraces can be as simple as flat slabs of rock or wood placed side by side with holes dug out between them to allow water to drain through.
Slope: the angle of inclination of a roof surface, expressed as a ratio of the rise (in inches) to the run (in feet). The common slopes are flat, half-slope, and gable. A slope's direction usually indicates the use for which it is designed: if left ungated, a flat or half-slope would provide drainage for rainfall; a gable would not. The amount of material used to form a roof slope affects its cost.
The cost of building a house depends on many factors, including size, location, climate, materials used, etc. One factor that often influences price is the shape of the roof. There are several different types of roofs available, such as flat, hipped, gabled, shed, and so forth. Each type of roof has a corresponding slope, which is the angle between the horizontal plane and the top edge of the roof. For example, a flat roof has a slope of 0 degrees; a half-slope roof has a slope of 45 degrees; and a gable roof has a slope of 90 degrees.
The type of roof you choose will determine your cost per square foot.
Slope of a Standard Horizontal Drainage Pipe
|PIPE DIAMETER||MINIMUM SLOPE|
|2 1/2″ or smaller||1/4″ per foot|
|3″ to 6″||1/8″ per foot|
|8″ or larger||1/16″ per foot|
To achieve this, you'll also need a line level, which is a little level that hangs from your string and is available at any hardware shop. With one exception, all of your drain pipes must slope slightly downward. Drainage is usually sufficient at 1/8" per foot. This corresponds to the usually suggested slope of 1%. However, if you have trouble with erosion or other problems with the drainage, then you should invest in a deeper pipe. The standard 2"-diameter PVC drainpipe is adequate for most homes.
The one exception to this rule is if you are installing a new sewer system. In this case, the pipe needs to be vertical to avoid having it collapse under its own weight. If this is the case, then the pipe should be installed before the slab is poured so that it can be sloped as needed after it's placed on top of the ground.
The depth of the drainpipe depends on how much water you expect to collect in it. If you install a new fixture such as a bathroom sink, the hole for the overflow tube should be no more than 2" deep. This will allow water to flow off the edge of the basin into the pipe without flooding the floor around the base of the basin.
If you have an existing fixture such as a bathtub, then the hole should be at least 4" deep to prevent it from overflowing during heavy rainstorms.
The table below depicts some of the most prevalent slopes. Railings are not required for 1:20 inclined floors, but anything steeper over 1:20 is considered a ramp and requires handrails. A Table of Common Architecture Slopes
|7.13°||1 : 8||12.5%|
|10°||1 : 5.67||17.6%|
|14.04°||1 : 4||25%|
|15°||1 : 3.73||26.8%|