The IET Wiring Regulations (BS 7671) describe electrical wiring as "wiring systems," which are "an assembly made up of cable or busbars and pieces that secure, and if required, enclose the cable or busbars." Enclosure is defined as "a protective covering for landlines or indoor cables." Outdoor cables are always covered.
Indoor wiring includes cable used in buildings for lighting, heating, air-conditioning, and other general purposes. Indoor wiring must be enclosed to prevent damage from weather conditions and accidental contact with electricity.
Outdoor wiring includes cable for power lines. This type of wiring is exposed to the weather and can cause electric shock if it is not protected by another material. Power lines should be located so they are out of reach of children.
Electrical wiring protects people and equipment from dangerous electricity. It does this by removing electricity from areas where it is not wanted, such as broken wires or appliances that have been left on. Electrical wiring consists of two types of cables: conductor wire and shielding. Coaxial cable, also called shielded cable because it uses metal foil as its shielding material, is a special kind of outdoor wiring.
Conductor wire is any number of different metals, including aluminum, copper, and steel, that carry an electrical current.
The national standard to which all household and industrial wiring must meet is BS7671 (The IEE Wiring Regulations). Significant adjustments have been made in the 17th edition to bring it in line with European documents. The new edition is called IEC 60364.
BS7671 was developed by the British Board of Industrial Standards back in 1976 for use within the United Kingdom. It's now used worldwide as a guide to wiring safety, efficiency, and compliance.
IEC 60364 was published in 2008. It's part of a series of standards developed by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) to replace existing British standards. The goal is to make life easier for manufacturers and consumers by removing redundancy between the various standards. In this case, BS7671 has been revised to be more compatible with IEC 60364.
IEC 60364 is not a complete replacement for BS7671. It does include some changes that will affect home wiring. But for office building wiring, which is covered under a different standard (BS4801:2009), there are no changes necessary from what was already required by that code.
Wiring as used in electrical installations includes the installation of conductors within an object to provide electricity from a source to various parts of the object. The term also refers to the process of inserting these conductors into their respective openings, holes, or slots within the object. Finally, wiring can also be defined as the use of connectors and other devices to complete an electrical circuit between two or more points.
Conductors are materials that transmit electricity without being damaged by it. They may be solid, liquid, or gas substances that share some property that allows them to conduct electricity. For example, metals have the property of conducting electricity because of their high density of electrons orbiting around the nucleus of the metal atom. Non-metals such as air have the same property at lower temperatures. However, when heat is applied to air at room temperature, its electrons become excited and begin moving around randomly, which prevents it from conducting electricity.
In simple terms, wiring is the process of putting electricity into circuits and turning it on and off as needed.