Manual for Load Calculation S: Manual for Equipment Selection D: Manual of Duct Design T is for Air Distribution. The major components of a HVAC system are shown in this diagram. It is important to understand that while many HVAC systems use electric motors to drive their components, some low-speed devices need be driven by hand. Examples include air filters and heaters that cannot run off of electric power but must be turned by an operator.
Electricity is used as the driving force in most heating and air-conditioning systems. This type of system is called an "electrical control system". The electric motor turns the compressor on and off, and may also operate other components such as air handlers, heat pumps, or air conditioners. Electrical control systems can be divided into two main types: centralized and distributed. In a centralized system, all controls are located in one place. An engineer designs the system so that various locations can be heated or cooled by turning off and on individual circuits. For example, if the office building has several floors, each floor would have its own circuit breaker panel with separate terminals for electricity going to each floor. If any circuit is closed off from these terminals, then that portion of the building is no longer reachable by electricity. Centralized systems have advantages and disadvantages over distributed systems.
Calculate the residential load. Manual J is the technique for calculating the amount of heating and cooling needed to keep a home's inhabitants warm in the winter and cool and dry in the summer. It is called "manual" because it requires information about the house's characteristics not be entered into the computer automatically by the software.
The first step is to determine how many square feet of floor space the property has. This is called its "footprint." The next step is to estimate what type of construction the house is. Are there any insulation values listed on the building code requirements sheet? If so, use those numbers as your starting point for your calculations. If not, guess based on how well you think the house was built. The final step is to multiply the footprint by.06 (the typical R-value for wood frame houses in the city). That gives you the total heat loss due to radiation and convection. Subtract this from the annual heat gain estimated from the program results and you have the maximum number of people that can live in the house without overheating or freezing.
For example, if the house has a footprint of 1,500 square feet and the program estimates an annual heat gain of 50 degrees Fahrenheit, then it can hold no more than six people. The computer also tells you the type of fuel you should use to heat the house.
A manual technique is one for measuring the concentrations of an ambient air pollutant in which sample collection, analysis, or measurement, or any combination of these, is done by hand. This method is considered accurate but time-consuming, so it is not useful for monitoring many samples.
The manual method involves taking several small samples from different locations in the laboratory area and analyzing them to determine the concentration of a pollutant. Each sample should be taken under similar conditions (i.e., at about the same time of day, in the morning after the room has been empty of people and equipment for a few hours). The samples should be collected in acid-washed glass containers with tight-fitting lids. They should be kept in a cool, dark place until they are analyzed by an appropriate test method.
For measuring nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone, the manual method requires only one sample. For lead, the manual method requires two samples: one before beginning work in the laboratory and one after cleaning up any lead-containing materials. For mercury, the manual method requires four samples: two before beginning work in the laboratory and two more after finishing experiments that may have used toxic substances as reagents.
An O & M manual's usual contents may include:
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Device makers frequently make manuals available on their websites, which are sometimes viewable online and sometimes downloadable as PDFs. There are even instructions for many older gadgets. Sure, you won't find the instructions for your 1970s cathode ray TV, but there are manuals for a lot of equipment from the early 2000s.