Whitetails are often killed at 100 yards or less, and mule deer at 200 yards or less, but every now and then, you'll want to take a shot at a genuinely long range of 300 and 400 yards. In such cases, you need a truly large-caliber rifle.
All else being equal, the more potent the gun, the farther it can be fired without risk of damage or malfunction. So if you have access to high-powered rifles, go for it! Just be sure to exercise good judgment before pulling the trigger. High-powered firearms are dangerous tools that require special handling by trained individuals.
But even with less powerful guns, there's no reason why you can't shoot far beyond what most people think is possible. By using proper technique and taking care not to overstress your weapon, you can easily kill deer with arrows out to about 500 yards.
Most hunters believe that the maximum effective range of an arrow is about 250 yards, but this is false. An arrow's true range is much greater because its actual impact site is below the surface of the target animal. The key factor limiting how far an arrow will travel is the weight of the arrow. The heavier the arrow, the further it will go.
So if you use heavy enough arrows, then your true range will be well over 300 yards.
Lighter bows will also kill deer, but they may lack the additional force required for optimal penetration if the arrow comes into contact with a heavy muscular mass or a bone. Bows with a draw weight of 45 to 55 pounds can readily deliver enough force to reach the vitals of a deer on a conventional 20-yard or less bow shot. Longbows generally have arrows that are more slender and light, so they can be used to hunt small game such as quail or squirrel. A longbow's draw weight can range from 25 to 60 pounds.
Bows come in several types, including recurve, hybrid, and straight. Each type has its advantages and disadvantages. A good archer should understand the benefits and limitations of each type of bow before choosing which one is right for them.
Recurve bows are by far the most popular type of bow used for hunting large game. They consist of two arms bent back towards the chest area of the archer, where they cross over each other at the top. The archer stands with his or her feet wide apart while pulling the string back to full extension. Recurves are designed so that when an arrow is placed in the groove at the end of one of the arms, it cannot fall out until after it is removed from the body of the deer. This is important because if an arrow fell out during the course of a hunt, it would have to be retrieved before another arrow could be fitted into the bow's loop.
Furthermore, when a bullet travels over time, its velocity decreases, although this does not make a major impact in the computation for distances of less than 100 yards. A whitetail deer may reach speeds of up to 30 miles per hour. It's reasonable to assume that when deer are pushed, they sprint at full speed. Therefore, a deer could cover 100 yards in 3 to 4 seconds.
The actual speed varies depending on many factors such as body weight, gender, age, terrain, and weather conditions. However, considering that deer tend to slow down or stop when injured or confronted with danger, it is reasonable to say that when pushed they can reach speeds of up to 30 miles per hour.
This means that if you shoot at a deer but miss, then it might still be alive when hit with enough force to cause fatal injuries several hundred yards away. So, you should never shoot at a moving target.
You should also understand that bullets drop off speed as they travel farther. This is called "drop-off". At 100 yards, a bullet will be traveling about 220 feet per second. This means that if a deer was standing still, it would be able to escape most shots because they would not reach high enough speeds to be lethal at these ranges.
However, since most bullets will always have some degree of drop-off, shooting at a fleeing animal from closer range is dangerous.