Transformers are classified into several varieties, including step up and step down transformers, power transformers, distribution transformers, instrument transformers, single phase and three phase transformers, auto transformers, and so on. Step up and step down transformers are used to increase or decrease voltage levels. Power transformers must be large enough to handle the load that they're powering. Distribution transformers reduce the high voltage from the power line to a safe level for household use. Instrument transformers can measure very low currents with high accuracy. Auto transformers are used in battery-powered equipment like radio-frequency (RF) signal generators.
In addition to these main types, there are also split-phase and 3-wire transformers which we will discuss later.
Types of step-down transformers There are three types of step-down transformers: single phase, center phase, and multi-tapped. Single-phase is used to reduce the current and voltage ratings as well as the input voltage to produce less voltage and current, such as 12V AC. Center-tap step-down transformers consist of two or more parts with each part having a different external dimension so that they can be placed in parallel to increase the current rating while using less material than if all the coils were the same size. For example, a transformer designed for 20 amps could have two 10-amp coils connected in parallel. The secondary side of this transformer would need to be able to handle 40 amps instead of 20. Multi-tapped step-down transformers are similar to center-tap transformers but use the same number of primary turns as there are secondary turns. Thus, the current rating of the transformer is equal to the total number of secondary turns x the primary current.
The choice of type of step-down transformer depends on the requirements for current capacity and output voltage. A single-phase transformer can only reduce voltage, whereas a center-tap or multi-tapped transformer can also reduce current.
Also, remember that the secondary side of a transformer must be kept free of any electrical connections except for its outer case. Any other metal objects inside the enclosure can cause short circuits when attached to another circuit.
Three-phase transformers are a type of transformer that is used to shift the voltages in three phases of electrical systems. There are four distinct configurations: star-star, delta-delta, star-delta, and delta-star. Each configuration will have one center-tapped secondary winding that connects to three separate load circuits.
Star-star transformers connect one terminal of each star coil to one another, while the other terminals are separated from each other. This creates a single-coil configuration with no center tap. Therefore, only two terminals are needed on the secondary side of the transformer. Star-star transformers are most commonly used when there are small differences between the voltage requirements of the three phases. For example, if one phase is always going to be used at full capacity while the others are used half as much, then a star-star transformer can be used to divide up the current among them more evenly.
Delta-delta transformers have two identical coils connected together at their centers and two other identical coils also connected together at their centers. Thus, they have four total windings, but only two of them are used at any given time. The two remaining windings are kept isolated from each other so that they do not carry current during normal operation.
Classes for Transformers
It is primarily used to transfer power and has a high rating. Distribution transformer: This type of transformer is used to distribute power and has a lower rating. Instrument transformers are further subdivided into current and potential transformers. Current transformers measure the amount of current flowing through a conductor, such as a copper wire. Potential transformers measure the voltage between two conductors, such as two wires in a wall socket. Instrument transformers are used in electrical equipment to isolate certain parts of the circuit from one another.
Electric transformers change either the voltage or the current in an electrical system. They achieve this by using magnetic fields. The primary side of the transformer receives electricity from a source such as a generator, while the secondary side delivers the energy to its destination, such as a light bulb or heater. Transformers can also work in reverse, with the secondary side providing power to the primary side. This process is known as "power reversal".
Electric transformers are used in many household appliances and industrial processes. For example, they are used to convert alternating current (AC) from the line voltage to the low voltage needed for lamps, heaters, and air conditioners. Electric transformers can also be used to increase the voltage of a circuit for other purposes.