# What are the two classifications of fault?

Any of the four fault types (bedding, strike, dip, or oblique faults) might be normal or reverse. They may be displaced parallel to or perpendicular to the fault's strike. A displacement could also be described as a "drop" if it is downward relative to its surroundings, or a "lift" if it is upward relative to its surroundings.

Reverse faults are those where the rock layer has been reversed, or turned over on itself. The term "inverse fault" is sometimes used instead. In this case, the rock layer has been turned over onto its opposite side.

Normal faults occur where the horizontal distance between adjacent rock layers exceeds the depth of a single layer. So in a normal fault, one layer of rock dips under another; the lower layer moves toward Earth's center while the upper layer moves away from Earth's center.

Strikingly vertical walls formed by the intersection of two nearly horizontal surfaces indicate that a dip-slip motion is occurring. This kind of fault may be either a normal fault or a reverse fault. It is called a "dip-slip" fault because one surface is moving up and down with respect to the other, like the action of dipping a toe into water and then lifting it out again.

## What are the two types of fault movements?

Normal faulting, reverse faulting, strike-slip faulting, and oblique faulting are the four forms of faulting. When normal or reverse faults have some strike-slip movement, and strike-slip faults have some normal or reverse movement, oblique movement occurs. All forms of faulting can cause buildings to collapse.

Buildings collapse due to damage caused by earthquakes. When a earthquake strikes a building, the force moves the foundation back and forth like the deck of a ship. The vertical component of this motion is called longitudinal displacement. Longitudinal displacement can be good or bad depending on how far it travels. If the foundation drifts only a few inches from its original position, no damage will occur. But if the foundation shifts several feet longitudinally, serious damage will be done to the building. This kind of movement is called severe longitudinal displacement.

Longitudinal displacement can also cause beams to break, walls to crumble, and floors to drop. If a piece of furniture rests on a floor-to-ceiling wall rack, and then the rack is dragged across the floor during an earthquake, the weight of the rack pulls down on the furniture causing it to fall over. This kind of damage is called lateral (or side) displacement.

## What are the four major types of faults?

Faults are classified into four types: reversal faults, strike-slip faults, oblique faults, and normal faults. > span> Reversal faults are when part of the Earth's crust moves horizontally over another part of the crust. This happens when two plates collide or "rub together." The result is that you get a horizontal movement of the ground. Think about where there might be a possibility for this type of fault to occur near your home. Reversal faults can be either shallow (less than 100 meters) or deep. Shallow reversal faults may be responsible for some earthquakes that happen without causing any damage. Deep reversal faults may be responsible for large earthquakes that cause significant damage to their surroundings.

Strike-slip faults are when one plate moves across the surface of the Earth along its edge. The result is that you get a line of motion along which the earth's surface is moving. Most often, this will be in a north-south direction. Strike-slip faults can be either shallow (less than 100 meters) or deep. Shallow strike-slip faults may be responsible for some earthquakes that happen without causing any damage. Deep strike-slip faults may be responsible for large earthquakes that cause significant damage to their surroundings.

##### Rick Arno

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