In the industrial sector, there are various types of hydraulic pumps. Pumps of this type include gear, vane, and piston. In all circumstances, the hydraulic pump's function is to move fluid volume against a resistive load or pressure. The type of pump used depends on the application.
Gear pumps are the most common type of hydraulic pump in manufacturing facilities. These pumps consist of a number of intermeshed gears that transmit power from a motor shaft to a driven shaft. As the gears turn, they also rotate an output shaft which delivers fluid when it reaches the pumping chamber. Gear pumps are available in a wide range of sizes to accommodate the demands of a project. They are durable and reliable, and due to their ease of maintenance, they have low replacement costs.
Vane pumps were originally developed for use in aircraft hydraulic systems. Like gear pumps, they also consist of a rotating assembly and a static assembly, but instead of gears, vane blocks drive the output shaft. Vane pumps are more efficient than gear pumps of equal size because they do not need to contain as many teeth and therefore can be made with larger bearings and less friction. Also, since they use radial vanes, they do not require rotational alignment like axial-flow pumps.
Piston pumps are similar to gear pumps in that they both use a rotating assembly and a stationary assembly.
Hydraulic pumps are a type of positive displacement machine used in fluid power applications to supply hydraulic flow to fluid-powered devices such as cylinders, rams, motors, and so on. A popular use for an engine-driven rotary-vane pump is the power-steering pump in an automobile. These pumps are relatively simple to manufacture and install and are fairly efficient depending on the design and type of motor used.
Rotary-vane pumps consist of a rotating wheel with lobes that press against the inside of a casing to move fluid when the wheel is turned by a motor or other source of mechanical power. The lobed wheel is called a rotor and the casing into which it fits is called a stator. The space between the rotor and the stator is filled with oil or another suitable hydraulic fluid. As the rotor turns, it forces the fluid out through one or more openings in the side of the casing.
These types of pumps are very efficient at converting electrical energy into mechanical energy and can run off any DC voltage from a car battery. They also have no mechanical parts that could fail causing them to stop pumping. This makes them ideal for applications where reliability is important.
There are two main types of rotary-vane pumps: single-stage and multistage. In a single-stage pump, the rotor has a single set of lobes and therefore produces only one pressure level.
Hydraulic pumps, which can be hydrostatic or hydrodynamic, are utilized in hydraulic drive systems. A hydraulic pump is a mechanical power source that transfers mechanical energy into hydraulic energy (hydrostatic energy, i.e., flow and pressure). It creates flow with sufficient power to counteract pressure at the pump outlet caused by the load. This action occurs because the force exerted by the fluid on the piston is equal to the force applied to the piston by the pump. The hydraulic pump is therefore essential for all types of hydraulic systems.
They can be divided into two main categories: centrifugal and axial-flow. In centrifugal pumps, the flow path is along with the axis of the rotor, whereas in axial-flow pumps the flow path is parallel to the axis of the shaft. Both types use rotational movement from a motor/engine to produce fluid pressure for their operation. However, they differ in design and construction. Centrifugal pumps have a longer history than axial-flow pumps and are more commonly found in industrial applications. However, axial-flow pumps are better suited for high-pressure applications due to their ability to handle larger fluid flows with less stress on the components.
Centrifugal pumps consist of three parts: the body, the cover, and the plate stack. The body is where the impeller (the part that produces the fluid flow) is mounted to the shaft. The cover connects to the body and encloses the entire unit.
Hydraulic motors are classified into three types: gear, piston, and vane. Gear motors are small and efficient, providing continuous service at rated power levels. They are used in applications where size is not a concern, such as on model railroads. Gear motors usually run on water or oil, but sometimes electricity can be used instead. The most common type of hydraulic motor is the piston motor, which includes single-acting and double-acting models. Single-acting motors have a single rod that connects the two sides of the motor, while double-acting motors have two separate rods connecting the two sides.
Vane motors are similar to gear motors in construction but use cams instead of gears to control the direction of rotation. This means vane motors are capable of continuously reversing their output direction. Vane motors are more compact than gear motors and they do not require lubrication or maintenance other than occasional cleaning. Because of these advantages, vane motors are used in applications where space is limited, such as on ocean vessels for driving generators.
Piston motors are probably the most common type of hydraulic motor in use today.
Hydraulic motors are mechanical actuators that transform hydraulic pressure and flow into torque and angular displacement (rotation). However, since they cannot be back-driven, many hydraulic pumps cannot be employed as hydraulic motors. The most common type of motor used with hydraulic systems is a pump-powered motor. Such motors are available in several designs, but all function on the same principles. One design uses a series of interlocking cams or lobes on a single shaft to provide multiple angles of attack for the blades of the motor's impeller.
Hydraulic motors can also be battery powered, which allows them to be used where an electrical motor would not be suitable. These motors use electric motors instead of hydraulics for efficiency reasons. They can also be air driven if sufficient pressure can be obtained from an air compressor.
Hydraulic motors are commonly used in machinery such as forklifts, tractors, and generators because they provide a way to convert hydraulic power into mechanical power without using a gearbox or other components which might otherwise be needed at low speeds. Their main disadvantage is their limited speed range compared with electric motors, but this does not present a problem when using them with hydraulic systems because the only part of the system that needs to operate at high speed is the impeller of the motor. This article focuses on piston-type hydraulic motors, but electric motors can be used instead.