There are three types of copper tube connecting methods: soldered or brazed connections, no-flame junctions, and other joining methods. Fittings, Solders, and Flux In plumbing, soldered connections with capillary fittings are utilized for water lines and sanitary drainage. Brazed connections are used for gas service and some drain lines. No-flame connectors are used in hazardous areas where conventional solder cannot be used.
Other connecting methods include welded connections, which replace the capillary fitting with a sleeve that is internally threaded to accept a threaded pipe. For heavier duty applications, oversize fittings may be used to provide additional strength. These fittings are known as "upset" because they need to be turned inside out when installing them.
Lubrication of various components within the plumbing system is also important for long life and good performance. The two main methods of lubricating pipes are coating them with grease or oil and inserting shaped pieces of metal called washers into joints before tightening them down with bolts or screws.
Typically, hard copper tubing is linked together by soldering fittings onto the ends of the pipe or tube. A mechanical compression fitting can be used to seal joints made of hard copper. Although soft copper may be soldered, many people prefer to employ mechanical flares or compression fittings to seal junctions using pressure. These types of fittings are available in sizes suitable for hard copper.
Compression fittings function by taking advantage of the fact that most metals expand when heated (this is called thermal expansion). By squeezing the fitting tightly against the copper, enough surface contact area is created to allow the metal to expand without causing the joint to leak. Compression fittings are easy to use and install, but they do require proper tools for installation. The fitting must have an internal diameter that allows it to be slipped over the end of the copper tube with enough space left around the outside to allow it to be compressed down the tube.
Hard copper has resistance to corrosion because its atoms are packed close together. This means there are not as many spaces where water can penetrate and cause damage. Hard copper is used in applications where strength and resistance to heat are important such as heating and cooling systems, hot-water pipes, and industrial equipment. It is also used in electrical wiring because it does not conduct electricity as well as other materials; this prevents short circuits from forming at connections between wires.
Copper's good resistance to heat makes it a popular material for water lines.
Most copper alloys may be joined using common procedures such as brazing, welding, and soldering. Electrical connections are frequently made via soldering. High lead concentration alloys are inappropriate for welding. Mechanical techniques, such as rivets and screws, can also be used to combine copper and copper alloys. Most copper alloys are suitable for use as electrical conductors because of their resistance to corrosion in air and water.
Copper alloys are used in a wide variety of applications including heat sinks, electric cables, wire ropes, brake lines, and fuel line components. They are also used in piping systems, from large-scale projects to household plumbing. Copper alloys are especially useful in applications where weight or size is important such as in aircraft design or power tools because they are relatively light and strong compared with other materials used in these applications.
Copper alloys contain about 8% by weight of gold. Gold is used in small quantities to enhance the strength and hardness of the alloy. Higher amounts would make the alloy too expensive for most applications.
The main advantage of copper over aluminum is its higher melting point. This means that copper can be worked at much higher temperatures than aluminum, which allows it to be used in more applications requiring high strength at elevated temperatures. Brass has similar properties to bronze but with lower nickel and/or zinc content. Bronze and brass have lower melting points than copper but higher melting points than iron.
Copper tubing should be used solely for propane (LPG) gas and not for natural gas. Only flare or solder fittings are permitted; no compression (ferrule) fittings are permitted. Local regulations take precedence. You should check with your local government about permissible tubing sizes for outdoor use.
The only reason to use copper instead of steel for your indoor plumbing is if you want to help prevent rusting. But even then, stainless steel is better because it will never rust.
If you want to help prevent the spread of disease in your community, use plastic or glass tubing instead of copper. Plastic tubing comes in various sizes and lengths. Glass tubing is available in single- and double-glass varieties. Both can be connected directly to a propane tank without needing any adapters.
Here's how to connect two tubes end to end: Insert the ends of the tubes into each other so that the outer layers of each tube make contact with one another. Then rotate them around their axes so that the inner layers contact each other. Finally, squeeze the tubes together firmly but carefully, being careful not to damage the inner walls of the tubes.
Tubes should always be joined under pressure; that is, while there is still some air between the layers of the tube wall. If you don't do this, the joint will leak.
Copper fittings are used in plumbing systems to connect hot and cold water lines to copper pipe. Copper pipe or tubing is classified into two types: rigid and flexible. Copper fittings are compatible with both types of copper pipe. Rigid copper piping is used where maximum strength and minimum size are required for the pipe. Flexible copper piping is used for smaller pipes that won't hold their shape when exposed to heat. The difference between the two types of copper fittings is only in the design; both include a female connector and a male connector that fit together tightly.
The two main types of copper fittings are straight ends and tees. Straight ends are used to connect two pieces of rigid copper pipe end-to-end. Tees are used to connect three or more pieces of rigid copper pipe together. Each type of fitting has several different sizes for different water pressures. For example, one size fitting can be used to connect a low pressure line to a high pressure line. A higher pressure fitting would need to have larger holes to prevent leaking at the connection point.
Copper is a good material for water pipes because it does not corrode like iron does when exposed to water. Corrosion from iron inside pipe walls causes them to break down over time, allowing other materials such as sand or rust to enter the pipe. This can lead to many problems including leaky pipes.