The four components are: (1) production machines with tools, fixtures, and other relevant hardware; (2) a material handling system; (3) a computer system to coordinate and/or control the previous components; and (4) human employees to run and manage the system, as described in the text. 3. Tools - necessary equipment for performing operations. 4. Materials - anything used in making products or objects. 5. Factory - a building or area of land containing facilities for manufacturing goods.
In addition to these five main elements, most systems contain additional minor components such as offices, labs, storage rooms, etc.
A factory is a place where materials are transformed into products. The ingredients of those products-namely, tools and materials-come from outside the factory, whereas the end product goes back there when it is finished. For example, a car company uses factories to make engines, transmissions, floors, seats, and wheels. These things are all materials that are transformed through cutting, welding, molding, and other processes into new products. When everything is said and done, the car ends up in a landfill or recycling plant.
Early factories made products out of rubber because they were hard to break down for transport and cheap to make. Today, they make many different products including cars, computers, phones, and houses.
As indicated in the graphic below, computer systems are made up of three parts: a central processing unit, input devices, and output devices. The most important part is the central processing unit (CPU). It is what decides how data will be processed and what commands will be executed. Other parts include the memory and the interface with the outside world. All together these parts make up the complete system.
Computer hardware consists of the mechanical parts that contain the electrical circuits and other components such as transistors, capacitors, and resistors. These mechanical parts can be divided up into two main categories: internal and external. Inside the computer case you have internal components such as the motherboard, power supply, hard drives, and CD-ROMs. Outside the case you have external components such as keyboards, mice, printers, scanners, televisions sets, and music players.
The importance of keeping computers free of dust cannot be overstated; it prevents certain components from functioning properly or at all. For example, if there is too much dust inside your computer case, it may prevent some components from making reliable contact and therefore work correctly. Even if you do not see any signs of trouble when you turn on your computer, this could be because there is still enough dust to keep things working smoothly.
Manufacturing System Components
The central processing unit, or CPU, primary memory, input units, and output units are the four major components of a computer. A computer also requires support staff to run it day-to-day, such as engineers, technicians, and others. However, these individuals are usually not considered part of the core group of people who build computers.
Since its introduction in 1973, the seven-layer OSI model has been the standard for communication between devices in a network. It consists of seven layers: physical, data link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application.
In computing, a device driver is software that allows another program to interact with a hardware device. For example, a disk drive controller displays the contents of a disk on a screen, allowing you to view files and folders. It's useful to be aware of what role each component plays in this process.
What Are the Four Primary Computer System Components? Input devices, output devices, processing devices, and storage devices utilized to store data within the computer system are the four fundamental components of a computer system.
Input devices allow the user to provide control instructions to the computer. Common input devices include keyboards, mice, touch pads, and remote controls. Output devices produce information on the screen or speakers. These can be as simple as an LED light array or as complex as a state-of-the-art video display. Storage devices hold data while it is being processed and output when necessary. They can be as small as integrated circuits (ICs) or as large as hard drives. The processor reads data from the storage device and processes it according to its instructions. It may also read other data stored in the storage device to perform its tasks.
Computer systems utilize various types of memory to store data. There are two main types of memory used by computers today: volatile and non-volatile. Volatile memory requires constant power to maintain its current state; if the power goes out then so does the data. Non-volatile memory does not require constant power to maintain its current state and can therefore save data even after the power source is removed.
A system bus connects all four components, transferring and relaying data between them. They work together to process information.
A processor controls the flow of instructions through its program counter. It may have other registers as well. Some processors also have on-chip memory that can be directly accessed by the instruction stream. Other types of computers use a separate memory device such as an EEPROM or hard disk drive for storing programs and data.
Input devices capture user input (such as keyboard strokes) and transmit them to the processor via the system bus. Output devices display information on monitors and printers. They send data to the processor over the system bus.
Memory stores programs and data for access by the processor. On a typical computer, memory is divided into two parts: main memory and auxiliary memory. Main memory requires less time to access but has a smaller storage capacity than auxiliary memory. Storage drives store large amounts of data that can be accessed quickly but cannot be changed regularly. Examples include hard disks and tape drives.
Computer systems contain many more components than just the above four; they also include a case housing the various components, electrical connections between those components, a power supply, fan, heat sink, and so forth.