The spread of nuclear weapons, materials, and technology is referred to as nuclear proliferation. The spread of chemical weapons, materials, and technology is referred to as chemical weapon proliferation. Proliferation of tiny arms, dissemination of small weapons Counter-proliferation measures to halt the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) include:
Nuclear Weapons Convention (NWC). Signed by almost 200 countries, the NWC prohibits nuclear testing and seeks to prevent nuclear war by prohibiting nuclear weapons states from developing or producing them. Countries not party to the agreement can join it by signing a supplementary agreement. Nuclear weapons states that fail to comply with their obligations under the NWC face neither legal nor economic sanctions but can be subjected to other forms of pressure to get them to change their policies.
Non-Nuclear Weapon States (NNWS). These are countries that do not have nuclear weapons facilities or active nuclear weapons programs. However, they may possess nuclear weapons material or technology that was formerly used in nuclear weapons projects that they abandoned before joining the NWC. NNWS parties to the NWC can withdraw from it by withdrawing their signature; this occurs when a country joins another nuclear weapons state or develops nuclear weapons capabilities without announcing it to the world. NNWS parties to the agreement can also become parties to the supplementary agreement by signing a separate treaty provisioning for them to continue possessing nuclear weapons materials and technologies abandoned under the original agreement.
The quick multiplication of pieces or an increase in the number of anything is referred to as proliferation. Nuclear proliferation refers to the fast rise in the number of nuclear weapons. Proliferation of any living organism will frequently result in overpopulation and an environmental imbalance. Biological proliferation can be beneficial, such as for seed dispersal, or detrimental, such as for evading predators.
Biological proliferation includes a wide variety of processes including cell division, growth, and differentiation. Cell division is the physical process by which cells divide into two new cells that are identical to the original cell in terms of DNA content. It is also called budding or germination. Cell division can be symmetric (with equal partitioning of material) or asymmetric (with one parent dividing into two children of unequal size). Asymmetric cell division can occur without cell division or even between cells of the same individual. Examples of asymmetric cell divisions include meiosis, where half of each chromosome pair divides at each step of germ line development, resulting in gametes with complete sets of chromosomes, and apical meristem formation where only one cell divides to form two root cap cells during plant embryogenesis. Growth is the term used to describe the three-dimensional expansion of an object containing more atoms than atomic mass units. Growth occurs through addition of matter (i.e., organic growth) or removal of matter (i.e., shrinkage) until no further change is observed.
What exactly is counter-proliferation? Counter-proliferation is the notion of stopping the spread of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) and the objects and materials that can help in their production. It is believed that by actively pursuing this goal, the threat of using WMD will be reduced.
Counter-proliferation involves three main elements: prevention, crisis management and restoration. Prevention means taking measures to stop things from happening in the first place. This element includes policies and programs designed to prevent conflicts from arising in the first place or to prevent countries from acquiring WMD capabilities. Crisis management refers to actions taken during an ongoing conflict or incident to reduce the risk of further violence and to facilitate de-escalation. Restoration is similar to mitigation in that it aims to return affected countries to their pre-conflict state or even better.
Prevention is considered the most effective method for reducing threats posed by WMD. This element encompasses international agreements, such as bans on certain types of arms sales and treaties limiting nuclear weapon tests; as well as national laws and regulations, such as those prohibiting bribery of foreign officials.
National policies and practices related to WMD must be transparent if they are to have any effect. This element was highlighted by several high-profile cases in which secret dealings resulted in the acquisition of WMD technology.
Horizontal expansion Horizontal proliferation is the spread of nuclear weapons to new countries through the prohibition of nuclear arms trade and the elimination of any capability to produce nuclear weapons. The proliferation of nuclear weapons has presented a threat since the first successful nuclear explosion in New Mexico in 1945. Since then, several countries have pursued nuclear weapons programs, most notably India and Pakistan.
The taboo against nuclear weapons trade has prevented major powers from transferring technology or materials that could be used for nuclear weapons production. However, smaller countries can obtain some equipment and material for nuclear weapons development from abroad. For example, North Korea has received fuel for its nuclear reactor from France and China, while Iran has bought plutonium-producing centrifuges from Germany.
Nuclear weapons states are required by treaty to not transfer technology or materials that could be used for nuclear weapons production. Nevertheless, there have been cases of foreign companies selling equipment and materials to these countries. For example, South Africa received nuclear technology from Britain and Canada and built two nuclear reactors at Koeberg in Cape Town.
However, both countries abandoned their nuclear programs in 1992 after public protests.
In addition, many countries have signed but not ratified the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty, including Libya, Iraq, and Yemen. These countries can receive nuclear technology and materials without violating international law because they are not signatories to the NPT.
A fast expansion in population (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons). (1) Nuclear proliferation has resurfaced as a serious worldwide problem. (2) The number of TV channels has increased dramatically in the last two years.
Nuclear nonproliferation is the activity or practice of restricting or regulating an excessive, fast spread. Or reluctance to proliferate, as in budding or cell division. Nonproliferation includes efforts to prevent new nuclear weapons from being developed or used, as well as efforts to reduce the current number of nuclear weapons.
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) - signed by nearly all nations except North Korea and Iran - aims to prevent nuclear weapons development for peaceful purposes only. It requires parties to the treaty to disclose all aspects of their nuclear programs, allow unfettered access to their sites, and not engage in reprocessing or uranium enrichment. In addition, they must submit to inspections by the signing parties.
North Korea has not signed the NPT, but it does not have a nuclear program. Iran refused to sign the NPT because its nuclear program was for peaceful purposes only. However, it suspended its participation in the treaty in 2003 when the United States invaded Iraq without seeking approval from Iran or other countries that were party to the agreement.
Iran is now interested in joining the NPT once again. In January 2016, Iranian President Hassan Rouhani said his country would be willing to resume talks with the five permanent members of the UN Security Council plus Germany about its nuclear program.