An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp, or incandescent light globe is a type of electric light that has a wire filament that is heated until it shines. These came first and are still made today. They are known for their warm glow and long life--up to 100 hours with ordinary use.
A fluorescent light bulb, fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent globe is an electrical device that uses ultraviolet light to excite a gas contained in a glass tube, causing it to emit visible light. These are more efficient at converting electricity into light than incandescent lamps but contain hazardous materials that can leak out if they break. They are known for their harshness compared to incandescent lighting and are not recommended for children under 4 years old due to possible exposure to lead.
An LED light bulb or light-emitting diode (LED) lamp is a lamp that uses LEDs as its source of illumination instead of traditional glow tubes or filaments. They are more energy-efficient than traditional lamps and do not contain mercury or other substances of concern. Additionally, LEDs last much longer—up to 10 times longer than traditional lamps—and do not need to be replaced as often.
Traditional street lights used incandescent or fluorescent lamps that required frequent replacement. This led to many cities installing motion-sensitive generators as an alternative.
1-Incandescent Bulbs: Incandescent bulbs are the most common type of bulb. When a current runs through a tungsten filament in an incandescent bulb, it glows, lighting the bulb. A vacuum or nitrogen gas surrounds the tungsten filament. This prevents oxygen from entering the glass envelope, which would cause the filament to burn up. The term "tungsten" is a trade name for an alloy of tantalum (20%) and tungsten (80%).
2-Halogen Bulbs: These use the same technology as fluorescent lamps but they emit more visible light. They are used instead of regular house lights at night because they don't need electricity to work and thus don't require wiring. Halogen bulbs also last longer than regular lights and don't break as easily when dropped. However, they cost more and contain more toxic materials if discarded improperly.
3-LED Bulbs: Light-emitting diodes, or LEDs, are tiny electronic components that can be used individually or in large numbers to create light sources. Modern LED bulbs use several LEDs arranged in series (like car headlights) or in parallel (like streetlights), with energy being passed through them all at once. These bulbs are very efficient: one study found that an LED bulb will last about 10 years before losing half its initial brightness.
The incandescent light bulb converts energy into light by passing it via a tiny wire known as a filament. The majority of electrical filaments are constructed of tungsten metal. The filament's resistance warms the bulb. The filament eventually becomes so heated that it glows, emitting light. Modern incandescent lamps use aluminum instead of tungsten for their filaments because they are more durable and efficient when used with alternating current (AC) power.
Incandescent lamps have several disadvantages: they contain toxic substances such as arsenic and mercury which can be released in case of failure or improper disposal; they consume much electricity; and they heat up very quickly when turned on. In addition, they emit harmful ultraviolet radiation and infrared heat. Incandescent lights are available in many different sizes from small decorative bulbs to giant floodlights.
The compact fluorescent lamp or CFL uses about one-third of the energy of an incandescent lamp while producing the same amount of light. It also lasts 10 times longer than an incandescent lamp. As well as being more environmentally friendly, CFLs are now also available in low-energy versions, with efficiencies equal to or greater than traditional incandescents. These new types of light bulb are beginning to replace traditional incandescent lamps in Europe and North America.
Fluorescent tubes and bulbs contain mercury vapor at normal operating temperatures.
An incandescent light bulb is essentially a controlled fire on show. When an electrical current comes into touch with the bulb's base, electricity penetrates and warms the tungsten filament within. When the filament warms up, it produces "incandescence," which is light generated by heat. The hotter the filament, the more light it will emit.
Filaments need to be kept cool in order to function properly. If they get too hot, they'll go out. Incandescent lamps work because there's a balance between the resistance of the filament and its temperature. As long as these values are maintained, current will flow and the lamp will remain lit.
The first incandescent lights were made from carbonized bamboo. These were early 20th century inventions and used when aluminum was first being used for home lighting. Modern incandescent bulbs use metal filaments that are usually made of nichrome or silicium. A thin layer of the material is placed under tension, then heated until it glows red-white while emitting light.
These metals need to be kept at low temperatures during manufacturing in order not to damage them. Today, most bulbs are made using semiconductor technology. They consist of a glass envelope containing an inert gas such as argon or krypton, a silicon chip with two electrodes attached to it, and a thin coating of aluminum on one side.
Incandescent lighting uses a thick, glass tube with a coating of phosphors that glows when an electric current is passed through it. The term "incandescent" comes from the Latin word meaning "to glow." Incandescence was first produced by Thomas Edison. He called his version of the light "filamentous carbon." Today's incandescent lamps usually contain two or three filaments made of nickel and tin coated with phosphorus and other chemicals to make them glow when electricity is applied.
The most common type of residential lamp is the energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamp (CFL). CFLs use about one-third of the energy of incandescent bulbs of equal brightness. They also last 10 to 20 times longer than incandesents. Some models can be adjusted with levers on the base to change their intensity. Most require separate replacement bulbs. Compact fluorescents were introduced in the United States in 1994 and have been widely adopted by consumers for their better performance compared with traditional incandescent lamps.
Halogen lamps are similar to compact fluorescents but use halides instead of phosphors to produce light.
Fluorescent and incandescent light bulbs are structurally and functionally identical. Both utilize electricity to heat an element inside a glass container filled with inert gas, resulting in the production of light. Incandescents work at about 60% efficiency, while fluorescents work at over 90%.
The reason for this difference is that the filament inside the incandescent bulb consumes energy even when it's not emitting light, so it must be kept warm enough to emit radiation even when no current is being sent to it. This is why incandescent lights tend to get hot after they're been on for a while - they're losing energy even when they're not lighting up anything. Fluorescent lamps do not suffer from this problem because they operate at such high temperatures that they cannot retain any residual electrical charge after they shut off. Thus, they cannot go dark.
Incandescent bulbs have two main drawbacks: they contain toxic substances that can leak into the environment if they break, and they consume a lot of electricity. The new alternative technology, fluorescent lamps, has its own set of problems. To produce light, these lamps use chemicals that release harmful gases when exposed to air. They also require more frequent replacement than incandescents, increasing the amount of waste generated by homes across the country.