Splices are "permanent" connections that are made between two strands. When linking optical fibers, the opposing cores must be appropriately aligned. Loss, or the quantity of light lost in the connection, is the basic criteria for connectors or splices. Connectors can reduce loss by a factor of about five compared with splice sleeves. A typical connector will have a loss around 0.2 dB per connection.
The most common type of connector used for connecting lengths of optical fiber is an FC/PC connector. These connectors can be easily connected and disconnected many times without affecting their performance. They are commonly used when there is no need to preserve the original alignment of the cores (e.g., when attaching multiple short sections of fiber).
A connectorized fiber end is one into which a connector has been inserted. The term is often used in reference to an optical fiber end that has had its coating removed from about its outer diameter (OD) to allow for better bonding with other materials. This may be necessary, for example, for coupling with other fibers or other optical components such as lenses or beam splitters.
An example of a common connectorized fiber end is the SC connector. These connectors are used mainly for indoor applications where they can be easily attached to and detached from fiber cables. Because of their simplicity and low cost, SC connectors are used extensively in local area networks (LANs).
Simply simply, fiber optic splicing is the process of connecting two fiber optic lines. The other, more typical way of attaching fibers is termination, also known as connectorization. Splicing is frequently used to repair fiber optic cables that have been accidently cut. Other common causes of damage include microcracks caused by earthquakes or aging infrastructure components. A new piece of fiber optic cable can be easily joined to an existing section of cable.
Fiber optic splices are available in a wide variety of configurations for different applications. Generally, they can be divided into three main categories: mechanical, fusion and optical. Mechanical splices use metal clips or special fibers that physically connect the ends of the cables being joined. Fusion splices use a chemical solvent to dissolve the glass of both fibers simultaneously. Optical splices use laser light to break down microscopic differences between the two fibers being joined. They can be very accurate and reliable, but they are expensive. There are also electrical splice kits that use heat-sensitive wires to join cables. These are simple to use and inexpensive, but they cannot be reused if there is any movement or vibration during later uses of the cable.
The most common type of fiber optic splice is the mechanical splice. These can be manual or automatic. Automatic mechanical splices use sensors inside the connectors that detect when the fibers are placed correctly against each other. Then, metal clips open automatically to secure the connection.
The Mechanical Splicing Technique Mechanical splicing is an optical junction in which the fibers are properly aligned and kept together by a self-contained assembly rather than a permanent connection. This approach aligns the two fiber ends to a common midline, allowing light to travel from one fiber to the other. The mechanical splice can be done in the field without any special equipment required.
The use of adhesive tapes or heat-shrinkable tubing is generally required when using this technique. A buffer tube may also be used to hold the fibers in place while they are cooled or cured. Heat-shrinkable tubes are usually made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film that is heated until it shrinks around the fibers, holding them in place.
This method is commonly used for short connections (less than 100 meters), test cables, and temporary repairs. It is important to clean and polish the fiber ends before attaching them to avoid any loss of transmission quality due to contamination or surface defects.
The Use of Cement Weights or Solvents To Attach Fiber To Metal Rods Or Other Substrates That Cannot Be Bent Or Twisted
Fiber optic connectors utilize a variety of techniques for mechanically coupling the fiber ends. For example, ferrule tips are often used with precision polishing processes to reduce backreflection at the fiber end face.