The section of a circuit that is linked to the center tap of a transformer is referred to as the common or neutral. In electronics, common is more widely used, although neutral is more usually used in electrical wiring. Ground is a link that is strong with the Earth. It can conduct electricity but does not transmit light or radio waves.
Common and neutral are two ways of saying exactly the same thing. If you have three-wire house wiring, then there is a fourth wire called "ground." This is the second way of saying that there is a fourth connection on every house circuit that connects to the earth conductor on the pole or panel box. This is important because people often think of grounds as something separate from the main line wires, when in fact they are not. Any conductor that is connected to the earth will do; it may be a metal rod set into the soil near the house, a metal plate attached to the exterior wall of the building, or even a metal pipe running under some floorboards or inside some walls. The important thing is that this conductor links the circuit to the earth.
All conductors that go into the wall or floor should be bonded together to form one continuous path out to the earth. This is usually done by using wire nuts to connect each conductor together before they are inserted into the wall or floor cavities.
Depending on the kind of circuit, the "common" wire is the "neutral" or "ground" wire. A black "hot" wire, a white "neutral" or "common" wire, and a green or bare "ground" wire are standard in US home wiring. The terms can be confusing because many circuits have more than one hot wire, but they all serve the same purpose as far as protection from electrical shock is concerned.
The term "commons" means that this is the path that other circuitry in the house may follow to avoid damaging any other parts of the wiring system. If you were to connect one end of a voltmeter to a "hot" wire at a panel junction and then stick its other end into any other part of the house, it would read as long as there was electricity flowing through some part of the system.
Conductors such as copper wires are designed to carry electricity, so they must be connected to a safe place where it will not cause damage if exposed to current. The connection to the safe place is called a "ground". In an electric circuit, all conductors should always be connected together to form a single point and then to the safe place. This is called a "grounded conductor".
If a conductor is not connected to a safe place, it is called an "open circuit".
Neutral grounding, also known as neutral earthing, is a technique used to safeguard the power system from anomalous fault current and, as a result, ensure the system's stability. It can be done by either connecting one side of the electrical ground conductor to all parts of the circuit being protected or by connecting both sides of the ground conductor to equal potential.
In the United States, electric power systems are designed so that any point on the circuit can be made "grounded" by attaching conductors to this purpose. The term "grounding electrode" is often used instead. The conductors carrying current away from this point are called "live" or "hot"; those leading back to a single point are called "neutral". Neutral conductors are always white or grey, while live conductors may be black, red, or green depending on which phase of the circuit they are for. A third type of conductor, called "earth", serves a similar function in some other countries such as Canada and Australia. In Europe, the word "neutral" does not have its usual meaning and cables are usually coloured red or black to show their function.
The goal of neutral grounding is to provide an alternate path for current to follow in case some part of the circuit becomes damaged. This would include any section of cable other than the one carrying hot current.
In any electrical circuit, two wires are required to complete the circuit. One is known as the "hot wire," while the other is known as "neutral" or "grounded." The neutral wire is also known as the "ground wire" at times. A "grounding" wire, on the other hand, is a safety wire that has been linked to the earth on purpose. This article focuses on ground wires.
Grounding wires are important for several reasons: 1 They provide an alternative path in case something happens to the hot wire. 2 They allow electricity to flow into Earth if you have metal objects inside your home such as pipes or sprinkler systems. 3 They reduce the risk of electric shock by taking some of the voltage off of the hot wire.
Electricity always takes the path of least resistance, and right now your hot wire is going straight into your house without making any turns. But with grounding wires, this current can take one of several paths instead: through the grounding wire to the earth, through the air, or around the object blocking the path. If you have metal objects inside your home, they will not block these paths and therefore will not cause damage. If you don't have anything metallic inside your house, then you will need to connect your grounding wire to the earth outside of your house in order to be safe.
The wiring system in your house was not designed to handle everything connected to the power supply.