1.1 This standard (Part 1/Sec 1) covers the design and construction of driven cast in-situ concrete piles that transmit load to soil by resistance created at the pile tip by end-bearing or along the surface of the shaft by friction, or both. Piles used as base material for buildings, roadways, etc., should be designed to meet American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Specifications for Load-Bearing Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Piles.
1.2 This standard (Part 2/Sec 1) covers the design procedures for determining the required bearing capacity of structures supported on driven piles. The required bearing capacity is the minimum capacity that will provide adequate serviceability of the structure during its useful life.
1.3 This standard does not apply to pre-cast concrete piles that are delivered to site ready for installation. These piles are usually supplied with an internal diameter close to their final size so that they can be easily handled during deployment and excavation prior to backfilling. On some projects where environmental concerns do not allow for backfilling with soil, these piles can be made out of materials that do not absorb water such as polystyrene foam or cement. In this case, the required bearing capacity would have to be determined by using the ASCE Specification for Pre-Cast Concrete Piles.
Pile foundations are classified into three varieties based on their construction methods: driven piles, cast-in-situ piles, and driven and cast-in-situ piles. Driven piles are excavated to a certain depth and then loaded with equipment to drive them into the ground. As they get deeper, they can be stacked on top of each other. Cast-in-situ piles are natural or manufactured objects that are buried in the ground without being lifted out of the hole they were dropped into.
Driven and cast-in-situ piles provide greater bearing capacity than driven piles but less than concrete foundations. They are commonly used for smaller projects or where quality soil is not available for a concrete foundation.
Driven and cast-in-situ piles are ideal for environments where freezing temperatures are common because they're designed to work even when water fills the holes. These piles also require fewer visits over time because they don't need to be refilled like concrete foundations do.
One advantage of driven and cast-in-situ piles is that they can be used in relatively soft soils without causing damage to the surrounding area. However, if you plan to stack these piles one on top of another, it's important to include space between each one to allow for expansion and contraction of the soil.
Which of the following heaps is a form of cast-in-situ concrete pile? The most prevalent forms of cast-in-situ heaps are the Raymond standard pile and the Raymond step-taper pile. Where the upper section of a file needs to be projected over the water table, composite piles are appropriate. Composite piles consist of a steel rod inside a cone of concrete.
Raymond Piles were invented by Frank H. Raymond in 1933. They are named after their inventor because they combine the advantages of cast-in-place and precast piles into one product that can be driven to a desired depth with minimum damage to the surrounding soil. Raymond Piles are made exclusively from steel alloys for durability and resistance to corrosion. They come in three sizes: 16", 20", and 24". Each size fits holes up to 2" diameter.
Because cast-in-situ piles do not require excavation, they can be used where other types of piles would be difficult or impossible to use. This includes narrow lanes, across gravel surfaces, and anywhere else where small radius curves are needed to fit into otherwise inaccessible locations. Cast-in-situ piles are also useful as support for lights, telephone poles, and any other structure that does not extend beyond the ground surface. Finally, they can serve as temporary support while the construction of a permanent facility is completed.
Bearing heaps are classified into several categories based on their purpose. Piles of friction Stacks of sheets Pile anchors or pilings Logs or trunks of trees
Friction piles are used to dissipate energy from waves and wind. They work best if you want to prevent a large amount of damage to your property's foundation. Stack piles are used when you need something rigid that will not move even after being hit by heavy winds or waves. Sheet piles are used when you want to provide support for something light (such as a shed) and do not want to affect the property's soil structure too much. Pile anchoring or piling involves driving wooden poles or concrete barrels into the ground to provide support for bridges, buildings, and other structures.
There are two types of sheet piles: smooth and ribbed. Smooth pile caps are used where there is little or no vibration. Ribbed pile caps are designed for high-vibration applications such as offshore drilling rigs. Trunk piles are driven deep into the ground to provide structural support for bridges, buildings, and other civil engineering projects.
Dump piles are used when you want to create an obstacle to control water flow.
Piles driven in non-cohesive soil. Qf = Qb + Qs is the ultimate carrying capacity of a pile. Terzaghi's equation for bearing capacity, qf = 1.3 c Nc + qo Nq + 0.4 g B Ng, may be used to get the base resistance, Qb. Because the diameter is much less than the depth of the pile, the 0.4 g B Ng term may be discarded. The specific weight of dry sand is about 2,000 lb/ft3. If the pile is 2 ft in diameter and 10 ft long, then Q = 20,000 lb + 4,000 lb = 24,000 lb.
The unit of measurement for bearing capacity is the ton-foot. One ton-foot equals 1000 pounds times 12 inches deep.
Bearing capacity determines the maximum load that can be supported by a pile. It is calculated by multiplying the diameter of the pile by the height it has been driven to. Then divide this number by 3.5. For example, if a pile is 2 feet in diameter and 10 feet high, its bearing capacity is 24,000 lb.
The term "tonnage" is often used instead. This refers to the weight of material that a single pile can support. To find the tonnage of material required for a particular project, multiply the pile density by the desired overall density.