Floor loads are typically carried from slabs to beams, and then from the beams to the columns in the design of reinforced concrete buildings. Finally, the columns convey the superstructure weight to the structure's base. The floor system therefore plays an important role in determining the size of the building.
The slab itself acts as the primary bearing surface within the building. Any load applied to a slab will be transmitted to the reinforcement within the slab through the concrete itself. The force is transmitted to the reinforcement by way of the fastening devices used to secure the floor joists to the reinforcement. If sufficient reinforcement is used, the majority of the load applied to the slab will be taken by the reinforcement within the slab. The remaining load is transmitted back to the reinforcement at the bottom of the slab, where it is again repeated until it reaches the foundation.
The reinforcement within the slab includes both bar reinforcement and wire mesh. Bar reinforcement consists of longitudinal bars that run the length of the slab on which they are placed. These bars are attached to the concrete with fasteners called anchors. The purpose of including bar reinforcement in the slab is so that the load can be transferred from the slab to the beam or other members of the framework. Wire mesh is a reinforcing material used in conjunction with concrete for adding strength and durability. It comes in various shapes such as grids and strips.
The load is transported from a slab to the beams, then to the columns, then to lower columns, and eventually to the foundation, which transmits it to the earth in an RCC-framed building. The walls of such constructions are built after the frame has been completed. The frame is first covered with sheathing and then with panels or boards. The exterior skin is usually made of wood, but metal skins are also used extensively for their light weight and resistance to corrosion.
In an RC construction, the floor joists (or stringers) are generally about half the depth of the wall plates (or headers). The top chords connecting the header to the ceiling joists carry most of the load. The bottom chords connect the header to the foundation and they may be either parallel or perpendicular to the floor joists depending on how the building is designed. If the building is designed with equal division of load between the top and bottom chases, then they should be approximately half-way down the side of the house from the peak of the roof to the floor.
The frame consists of four main elements: the sill, the footer, the beam, and the header. The sill is the base of the frame beneath the floorboards or other surface material that covers the frame. It can be flat or raised to avoid damage to the basement wall. The sill must be strong enough to support the expected loadings on the building.
The load is carried from the wall region to the suspended floor and roof/ceiling area via the beam function. Ground floor: The load is carried from the wall area to the facade foundation and suspended floor via the slab function. Roof/ceiling: The load is transmitted from the wall to the ceiling joists and then to the roof sheathing.
The beam must be strong enough to carry its own weight plus any additional load caused by its location in the building (for example, over a room or under a floor). The stronger the beam, the less likely it is to suffer damage due to loading.
The slab must be thick enough to carry its own weight plus any additional load caused by its location in the building (for example, over a room or under a floor). The thicker the slab, the less likely it is to suffer damage due to loading.
The wall must be strong enough to support its own weight as well as any load applied to it from outside sources such as wind or earthquakes (see also: Wind Loads - Foundation Design).
Beams and slabs are chosen to match the expected load patterns to prevent failure where possible. For example, if the building is expected to see a lot of load transfer through the middle floor, then that floor should be made up of several beams or plates instead of one large piece.
A transfer slab is simply a beam made of concrete and steel reinforcing that is supported by a concrete slab. Its purpose is to transfer floor loads to support posts and pillars. Vote up! (1) Vote No (0) Respond (1) Comment Flag Comment as inappropriate Free vote on comments, not flags. Source
A transfer table is a flat platform with holes in it for posts. The posts are set into the ground at each end of the table. A transfer slab is used under a floor joist to carry load from one side of the house to the other. It connects two-story sections of the house. Loads on the first floor are transferred through the floor joists to the transfer slab, which then carries them to the post at the opposite end of the room.
The post at that end of the room receives the load directly from the second floor. The post may be set into the ground or built into the wall. If it's built into the wall, the hole left when it was removed is filled with concrete to create a counterweight for heavy floors. Otherwise, it would pull its building down around it.
A transfer table can be used instead of a transfer slab if you don't have access to a carpenter.