A vector group, also known as a connection symbol in electrical engineering, is the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) technique of classifying the high voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) winding topologies of three-phase transformers. It was developed by the IEC Committee on Power Transformers to provide a standard method for manufacturers to describe the characteristics of different types of power transformers to enable them to be used interchangeably within an electrical system.
There are six main categories of vector group: delta, delta-wye, wye-delta, wye-wye, suspended.
The term "vector group" comes from the fact that these windings are placed around a center magnetic core with three legs or "vectors". The orientation of each vector relative to the other two determines which type of vector group is being described. If one vector is rotated 180 degrees with respect to the other two, then we have a delta group vector configuration. If all three vectors are aligned, there is no preferred direction around the center, so we call this a "random" group configuration. A wye group has its vectors anti-parallel to those of the delta group. A yaw group has its vectors at 90 degree angles to those of the delta group. A suspended group has its vectors perpendicular to those of the delta group.
The vector group of a transformer specifies the sort of connection formed between the transformer's windings. It also reveals the phase difference between the transformer's primary and secondary winding voltages. A vector group of "0" means that the voltage is the same in both directions around the loop; a vector group of "90" indicates that the voltage is positive on one side of the loop and negative on the other; and a vector group of "180" means the voltage is positive on one side and negative on the other.
In an AC circuit, current flows in a continuous path through the conductor(s) connecting the two terminals of the source. But power is delivered to a load only when certain conditions are met. The voltage across the load must be more than zero but less than or equal to the voltage from the source. Also, the load cannot be directly connected to the source since this would prevent the flow of current through it. Instead, there must be another device in series with the load called a "transformer". A transformer takes the voltage from the source and reduces it while increasing the voltage back to the source when needed by the load. Transformers can also increase or decrease the current flowing into the load.
A transformer uses magnetic fields to link its primary to secondary circuits.
The vector group represents the phase difference between the main and secondary sides caused by the transformer winding connection design. Before connecting two or more transformers in parallel, it is critical to determine the vector group of the transformers. If they have different vector groups, the resulting combination will also have a unique vector group that is the OR of the individual groups.
For example, if you connect two 120-volt, 60-Hz transformers with their primary leads connected together, the result will be a 240-volt, 180-degree-phase shift power supply. The voltage ratio is 1:1, but the angle between the lines carrying the voltages is split by 90 degrees because they are in opposite phases. This means that you can't use normal wiring methods for these supplies. Instead, each unit must have a special plug designed to fit into only one of the three-prong outlets commonly used in North America.
Similarly, if you connect three 120-volt, 60-Hz transformers in parallel with their primaries tied together, the result will be a 360-volt, 180-degree-phase shift power supply. The voltage ratio is 1:1:1, but the angle between the lines carrying the voltages is split by 135 degrees because they are in alternating directions.
Transformers in the Vector class A. The three-stage transformer windings can be connected in a variety of ways. The vector gathering of the transformer is resolved based on the association of the windings. B. The transformer vector gathering is displayed on the transformer's nameplate by the manufacturer. The term "vector group" refers to the set of two or more winding terminals that are tied together into a single phase. A transformer's vector group determines how it must be wired with respect to other voltage-dependent equipment (such as circuit breakers) that may be on the same circuit.
Designation of Common Symbols Transformer Notation's Vector group. This arrangement corresponds to the vector group of transformer Dyn1, where the LV is 30 degrees behind the HV. Figure 4 shows a delta primary, a wye secondary, and a neutral. The LV side is 30 degrees behind the HV side. Common symbols for this vector group are Δ, W, and N.
What exactly is a vector, and how can it be used in electrical design? A vector quantity is defined as "any physical quantity whose definition contains both magnitude and direction and that obeys the parallelogram law of addition," according to the "IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronic Terms." That means vectors include length, area, velocity, flux, and charge.
Vectors are useful tools for calculating the effect of two or more forces acting on an object. For example, if you were to lift one end of a tablecloth up while holding the other end down, there would be a net force acting on the tablecloth, even though you are only applying one force. The force acting on the tablecloth is called a vector because it has a direction (up) and a magnitude (weight x distance from center of gravity). Using this concept, we can calculate the effect of multiple forces acting on an object. In this case, the tablecloth is weighed down against its own weight so its surface will be under constant tension. If we add together the weights of all the objects on the table (including yourself), you can see that this number equals the weight of the tablecloth's counterbalance, which is another name for a vector.
The concept of vector analysis was first proposed by Isaac Newton in his 1687 book Opticks, where he showed how to find the net force on any system of particles.
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