Long-span floor systems are defined as those that span more than six metres for reinforced concrete systems and eight metres for prestressed systems for the purposes of this guide. Some systems are effective below these artificial boundaries, and their whole range is presented for completeness herein. However, many long-span systems are restricted to shallow foundations or require deep foundations to be stable.
The maximum depth of a foundation for a long-span system depends on several factors such as type of load, soil conditions, etc. But generally, it should be at least twice the height of the slab to be stable. For example, if the slab is 10 feet high, then the foundation should be 20 feet deep or more.
Artificial boundaries are required on slabs in some countries to prevent people from falling off of them. In other words, they need to be safe. Long-span systems are often not considered safe because they extend beyond the boundary of the property. However, there are many safeguards included on such systems to prevent people from falling off of them. For example, extended slabs must be painted in dark colors so that they are visible during night time lighting changes. Warning markers also need to be placed at intervals along the edge of the slab to alert people that they are approaching an unsafe area.
In conclusion, long-span floors are used when you want to expand your house into an existing space or add on.
The flat plate is an affordable floor design used in building construction, consisting of a simple floor slab around 20 cm (eight inches) thick resting on columns placed up to 6.7 metres (22 feet) apart. The column spacing depends on the load that will be supported by the floor.
A flat slab can be made from many materials including concrete, stone, and metal. It is usually square or rectangular in shape, although circular slabs are available. The thickness varies depending on what type of material is being used, but a standard flat slab is about 2 meters (6.6 feet) wide and 20 centimeters (8 inches) thick.
As the name implies, a flat slab does not have any raised areas like tiles or pavers. Instead, it is completely flat. If you look at a flat slab from above, you'll see that it makes a single layer, with no gaps between pieces. The surface may be plain concrete or it may have texturing or coloring added for aesthetic purposes.
Flat slabs are commonly used as walkways, driveway surfaces, playgrounds, and basketball courts. They're also useful for adding comfort to cold floors by reducing foot traffic while still providing traction.
There are two types of flat slabs: those that are solid across their entire width and length, and those that are hollow.
The largest span of a simply supported concrete beam has no theoretical limit; it can be 100 meters long. However, the depth will be in the region of 10 meters, necessitating massive quantities of reinforcement, labor, and, of course, expense. In practice, a simply supported concrete beam has a maximum span of 7 meters. The load on such a beam is primarily concentrated at the ends, so they must be well-supported.
A reinforced concrete beam would have deep beams inside the length of the slab to which it is attached. These deep beams would be tied together at certain intervals with concrete girders. The longest such girder would be 50 meters long, but this would depend on how much load it had to carry.
The depth of a simple concrete beam depends on its use. If it is only being used as a footbridge then a depth of about 10 meters should be sufficient. Beams that are 20 meters or more deep are used as floor joists in buildings. They need to be strong enough to support the weight of people walking across them and any cargo being transported.
The load capacity of a beam is determined by its cross-section. The stronger the beam, the more load it can carry. A beam's strength increases as its width and depth increase. So, a beam with a square cross-section can carry more load than one with a circular cross-section.
In theory, there is no limit to the greatest length. However, they are constrained both practically and economically. It is economically viable to build a flat slab with a span of 6.0 to 9.0 m. Such slabs are called large panels or large structures.
The only limitation to the maximum span of a flat slab is that it must not be so wide that it cannot be supported without using a column at each end. Otherwise, the slab will buckle in the middle like a deck does when it is not tied down properly.
If you want to build a slab with a span greater than 9.0 m then you should consider other forms of construction instead. A monolithic slab-on-ground frame building with flat exterior walls is the most efficient way to go if you need a very large structure.