A step-by-step explanation with an animated graphic is provided. This animated graphic shows how a speaker works. A stereo or amplifier sends an electrical signal to the speaker that switches from positive to negative in the form of the musical sound. The coil inside the speaker produces a magnetic field when current is passed through it. This magnetic field then moves a magnet which creates more vibrations that are transmitted back to the coil.
When the electrical signal from the amplifier becomes negative again, the coil stops producing a magnetic field and nothing happens to the speaker. The next time voltage is applied to the coil, it will start making another waveform pattern until it is switched off.
Electrical signals travel along wires called conductors. When an electric signal travels down a conductor like a wire, it causes electrons to flow along the conductor's length. These moving electrons create their own magnetic field that interacts with the original magnetic field produced by the energized coil. This new magnetic field causes another movement of the magnet which then produces another electric signal on the other end of the conductor. This process continues indefinitely so long as electricity flows through the conductor.
Conductors can be anything that allows electrons to flow through it: metal wires, fiber-optic cables, etc. Conductors need to be able to carry electricity without breaking down due to resistance heating up or melting due to excessive heat.
The input to a speaker consists of two terminals on the speaker's rear that receive an electrical signal from an amplifier. The sound produced by a speaker is referred to as its output. There are three types of speakers: left-right (or stereo) pairs, single speakers, and subwoofers.
Each pair of speakers must have a different voltage to produce sound. This means that you cannot connect more than one speaker directly to a vehicle's power source or they will all play at once, which could be annoying if you have lots of music stored on your audio device. Instead, attach each speaker to a separate channel on a stereo system. Most cars have only two channels; if yours doesn't, you'll need a three-channel amp.
Speakers come in many shapes and sizes. To match them properly to your car's head unit, read the instructions that came with it. Generally, the larger the speaker the better; this is because much of the sound is generated from below threshold levels, so you want as much surface area as possible covering as much volume as possible.
You should also use high-quality speakers. In addition to improving sound quality, using higher-quality speakers can reduce noise pollution and improve heat dissipation within your car.
The sound waves drive the cone to move back and forth, causing the magnet to move back and forth and creating a changing emf, which sends a changing wave shape of alternating current down the wire to the amp. The signal moves the magnet, which moves the speaker, which converts vibrations in the air into sound. The speaker can be replaced with a magnetic coil that uses electromagnets instead.
Sound travels through space in compression waves. When an object causes something else to vibrate, such as when a string is plucked or struck, the source of the vibration transmits a compression wave into the air. This wave spreads out from the point of origin and continues to travel until it hits another object that can vibrate- such as another string on a guitar or a drum head. At this point, the first object's compression wave interacts with the second object, causing it to vibrate too, and so on, spreading out over more strings or other objects. This process continues until the original compression wave reaches its destination- either another object or an earpiece of someone playing along with their guitar.
You may have heard that sound also travels through water? That's true, but only if you're hearing sounds below the threshold of human perception called "water waves". Above this threshold, sound can travel through liquid like through solid material- except that it will not disturb any molecules beyond the first one or two molecules from the surface of the liquid because there are no more particles above which to collide with.
An amplifier is the device that converts the low voltage signals from your source equipment into a signal with sufficient gain to power a set of speakers. The term amplifier applies to many different types of devices used for this purpose. Amplifiers can be divided by what they amplify: magnetic tape, audio discs, or electric signals. They can also be classified by how they achieve gain: linear amplifiers, non-linear amplifiers, and active amplifiers.
In general, the more amplification that is required, the more complicated the amplifier will be. This is because an amplifier must not only provide sufficient gain but also limit the output such that it does not damage components down stream. Modern amplifiers use semiconductor technology which allows for very efficient amplification with high gain. These amplifiers are called "junction" or "bipolar" amplifiers after the component technology was invented by Irwin Kashiwa and his team in Japan in 1947. Alternative technologies such as field effect transistors (FETs) and vacuum tubes are also used for amplifying electrical signals. FETs are generally less expensive than bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) and work well for small to medium size applications. Vacuum tube amplifiers are highly efficient and can handle large amounts of current, but they are also very expensive and require maintenance to keep them working properly.