Two cables are used to light the bulb. Connect one wire to the battery's negative terminal and wrap the other end of the same wire around the bulb's base. Connect the second wire using electrical tape to the positive end of the battery and to the base of the bulb, completing the circuit and lighting the bulb. The flow of electrons through these wires produces electricity which lights the bulb.
Batteries consist of two electrodes separated by an electrolyte. When a voltage is applied across the electrode, ions in the electrolyte move from one electrode to the other to complete a circuit and produce electricity. Batteries can be divided into three main categories based on their electrolytes: acid batteries, alkali batteries, and non-acid/non-alkali batteries.
Acid batteries include sulfuric acid, zinc-carbon, and phosphorus acid. These batteries require immersion in water to be used. Water washes out any acid that has been spilled, and also serves as the electron conductor between the positive and negative plates. Water-resistant seals help prevent moisture from reaching the plate surfaces.
Alkali batteries include lead-calcium and lead-silver. These batteries cannot be immersed in water. They must be dried after use or they will corrode away. Alkaline batteries contain an internal sodium metal sheet that reacts with water to create hydrogen gas and dissolve more alkali.
Back to the fundamentals of electricity A standard lightbulb has two terminals: one at the base and one at the bulb's threads. You will connect a wire between one of the battery terminals and the rim of the light bulb. And a second wire connecting the other end of the battery to the bulb's base.
When you connect electricity to a light bulb, it gets hot because it is generating energy. If you leave a light bulb on its own, it will continue to emit electrons until it breaks down. The same thing happens if you connect a lamp to a battery but don't turn it on. The light bulb still emits electrons until it burns out.
In order for a light bulb to work, there needs to be a complete circuit between the battery and the light bulb. This means that you need to connect both ends of the battery lead to the terminal block or fuse box. Only then can current flow through the light bulb and into the earth ground connector on the back of the box.
You should only ever have one piece of metal in any electrical connection. If you have more than one metal object in a circuit, you will get a short circuit which could cause damage to your equipment or injure someone if it happens while you are working on them.
The amount of power that flows through a light bulb is very small. However, it is not zero! It is enough to heat up the filament inside the bulb.
Take the following steps:
With the circuit closed, electrons can travel from the negative terminal of the battery to the positive terminal, passing via the lightbulb. Those charges closest to the light bulb will complete one circuit step and begin converting energy from electrical to light (or heat). The next set of charges to reach the light bulb will pass through the next circuit step, and so on, until all the electrons have passed through the light bulb. At this point, the light bulb is off and cannot conduct electricity.
As the last electrons leave the negative terminal of the battery, the process is reversed and the light bulb glows with electricity flowing into it from the battery.
This system of electric circuits is how all modern appliances work: radios, clocks, lights, etc. If any part of the circuit is broken, no current will flow and whatever was connected to the broken portion of the circuit will not work anymore. For example, if the light bulb is out, then there will be no flow of electrons through it and it will not get hot. There may still be current flowing in other parts of the circuit, though, so other things plugged into the same wall socket as the unplugged appliance will still function properly.
Electrical power is the flow of electrons through a conductor such as a copper wire. Electrical energy is the energy associated with these flows, which can be used to do work.