Technical losses can be reduced in a variety of ways, including, but not limited to, increasing cable size, decreasing cable length, adding a parallel feeder, proper placement of distribution transformers, maintaining a proper power factor (for example, by adding capacitors), minimizing cable splices, and ensuring all connections are of high quality. Commercial losses include loss due to improper installation, user error, damage caused by unauthorized persons or vehicles, natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes, and theft.
Electrical losses can be further reduced by using better equipment. For example, if you have old wiring with large numbers of broken or aging wires, this can lead to high electrical losses because of the need for more current to flow through less conductive material. This is called "resistance heating" and is one reason why old wiring is so inefficient thermally. Modern building codes require electricians to replace any old wiring with new wiring that is either aluminum or copper instead. The use of these higher-quality materials reduces resistance heating and thus reduces electrical loss.
In addition, electric utilities generate much of their electricity from sources such as coal and nuclear plants which are very efficient at producing energy. Only a small portion of this energy is needed at any given time, so it's possible to save even more electricity by operating your appliances during off-peak times, which are generally mornings and evenings when electricity prices are low.
Some approaches for reducing technical losses include replacing poorly sized transformers, improving conductor connection quality (power lines), and enhancing reactive power availability by inserting capacitor banks along transmission lines. Market forces can also reduce loss if customers choose to purchase less electricity from high-loss providers.
Transmission line loss can be reduced by using better materials for the conductors. Aluminum wiring was once used for transmission lines because it is lightweight and easy to work with but it will eventually get too hot to touch when exposed to sunlight or heat from other sources. Today's transmission lines are made of steel for better performance and lower cost. They can be miles long and cross many different kinds of terrain so they need to be sturdy enough to be installed in this type of environment.
The amount of transmission line that connects two points together is called the length of the line. The more distance that a line has to travel, the greater the loss will be. Transmission lines have resistance and inductance just like any other wire. The more distance that a line needs to travel, the higher the resistance will be. The higher the resistance, the more energy is lost as heat. Inductance has nothing to do with transmission line loss but instead relates how much voltage fluctuates on the line when current changes direction.
There are several methods for reducing transmission and distribution losses. Market-based approaches include offering competitive rates, terms, and services to businesses that will help them avoid installing expensive new equipment because they cannot afford the cost.
Technical approaches can only do so much. In some cases, you need to look at the market structure itself if you want to bring down costs - for example, by changing or abolishing net metering. Or you can try to influence markets by filing lawsuits or registering complaints with relevant government agencies when markets work against your interests.
Market-based approaches depend on markets working as they should. If you have read my other articles on this topic, you will know that I think that markets do not always function properly and that is why some people suffer needlessly due to lack of affordable electricity. But regardless of whether or not they do so, it is up to each country to decide what role it wants to play in trying to improve energy efficiency.
Some countries may choose to abolish certain tariffs or discounts, such as net metering. This means that if your house uses less electricity than it produces then you will be required to buy back any surplus from the grid.
Replacing obsolete equipment is one potential technique for dealing with loss. Replacing obsolete equipment is one approach to save losses. In high-traffic areas of the network, replacing replacement cables with greater power ratings can significantly minimize losses. Recycling used transmission cable could also be an effective way to reduce loss.
Techniques such as voltage regulation and load balancing can also help avoid excessive voltages that lead to damage. Loads on transmission lines can be controlled in many ways: from the use of certain devices (such as circuit breakers) to the development of more efficient technologies. For example, one method that has been used to control loading on transmissions lines is to install distributed generation technology at locations where there is excess demand during peak hours. This helps reduce the need for overgeneration or undergeneration at major power plants. Distributed generation can also provide backup power in case of main line failures.
Technical measures can also be taken to protect against damage caused by animals. For example, power lines are being placed below ground or on tall poles in some countries to prevent them from being attacked by birds. Power companies may also choose to install power lines along railroads or other safe routes away from inhabited areas.
Last, but not least, maintenance plays a very important role in reducing loss. Maintenance includes both routine checks of equipment for defects or problems and any necessary repairs or replacements.