The larger the diameter of the wire used in residential wiring, the greater the maximum current that the wire may safely carry. The accepted rule is that the diameter of wire should be no smaller than #18 for 120-volt service and #12 for 240-volt service.
However, this rule is based on safety factors that account for wire resistance, so wires of different sizes can carry the same current if they have the same resistance. For example, if a wire is only about half as thick as what's allowed by this rule but it has the same resistance to ground as the other wire, it will still carry the same current.
The current rating of wire is usually marked on its outer covering (or "sheath") in amperes. This means that if you were to measure the current flowing through the wire with a simple ohmmeter set to read amps, it would tell you how much power is being consumed by the circuit. Power is current times voltage, so multiplying amp readings by volts gives you the total current flowing through the wire.
Because power is flow times cross sectional area, doubling the area of the wire will double its capacity to carry current.
The bigger wire's wider diameter provides more space for electrons to travel through the circuit. As a result, smaller gauge wire is rated to carry fewer amperage (electric current) than bigger gauge wire. A standard residential wire of the lowest size may carry 15 amps of electricity. A two-wire service called a "commons" can carry 20 or 30 amps before it needs replacing.
Using too big of a wire can also lead to problems such as increased resistance and heat buildup in the wire. This can be avoided by using the right size wire for the job. If you're unsure about how much current your wiring can handle, it's best to replace them with bigger wires.
Electrons go through the metal substance that makes up wire to conduct electricity. However, if you need more current capacity but don't want to use larger wire, then multiple loops of smaller wire are strung together to make one longer loop of larger wire. This uses up less space in your project and can handle more power.
Thicker wire will also usually mean better conductivity, so it can carry more current. But thickness isn't the only factor that affects wire resistance; length, cross-sectional area, and material composition all play roles as well. So while thicker wire does tend to have lower resistance, there are other factors at work as well.
Wires are typically either solid or stranded. A strand is a very thin strip of metal that is folded over on itself many times to make it stronger. The more times it's folded, the thinner the strand becomes. For example, a 1/8" (3.5 mm) solid copper wire has a diameter of about 0.0254", while a 3/16" (4.5 mm) stranded copper wire has a diameter of about 0.0113".
The smaller the diameter and the thinner the wire, the higher the gauge number. A bigger wire carries more current with less voltage drop than a narrower wire because it has less electrical resistance. Also, if you use too small a wire, it will be difficult to work with and the circuit may not function properly.
As far as carrying more current, all wires are equal in this regard. The only thing that matters is the material they are made of and their size. If one type of wire is enough to handle the load, then it should be used instead of trying to get by with less able materials or in smaller sizes.
The current flowing through any part of an electric circuit is equal to the total amount of current divided by the total length of the circuit. For example, if you have a 10-foot section of 2-wire cable and each wire is capable of carrying 15 amps, then the entire cable is capable of 30 amps. The voltage across any point along the circuit is also equal to the total amount of current divided by the length of the portion of the circuit between that point and the next nearest power source. In this case, there are two points where the voltage might be 0 V: At the beginning and end of the circuit.
The wire's gauge and diameter are inversely linked. In other words, as the gauge number increases, the diameter of the wire decreases. A 10-gauge wire, for example, is larger than a 12-gauge wire. Greater amperage and power may be carried by larger cables than by smaller lines. The cable's overall length should be limited by space constraints or the ability to reach its destination with the available wiring.
Gauge is most often measured as the distance between the centers of two adjacent wires inside the sheath. The term comes from the early days when all wire was made from steel tubing and there were no insulated conductors. To prevent electrical shock, it was necessary to use a thin metal sheet (the "sheath") between each pair of wires. The thickness of this sheath varied depending on the voltage being carried; the lower the voltage, the thinner the sheath required. Today, most electric wiring uses aluminum or plastic tubing as the core material for its conductors instead of steel, so it isn't necessary to specify a particular gauge anymore.
There are two types of gauges used in wiring systems: single and multiple. Single-gauge wires are those that contain a single strand of copper wire within their protective covering. These come in three sizes: 14, 24, and 40 gauge. Multiple-gauge wires have several strands of copper wrapped together to make a stronger, heavier cord.