For batteries that do not go through full charge cycles, use a two-to-three-year life expectancy. Rechargeable Lithium-Ion batteries have a finite lifespan and eventually lose their ability to retain a charge. Lithium-ion batteries continue to slowly deplete (self-discharge) when not in use or in storage. This depletion reduces the battery's capacity over time.
Lithium-ion batteries should never be fully discharged. Discharging a lithium-ion battery below 0% ensures that it will not function properly when needed most. Avoid any treatment that would lower the battery voltage to below 4.2 volts; this includes both complete discharge and partial discharge with a power source or device that operates on lower voltages than the battery. Complete discharges can lead to thermal runaway due to a buildup of heat within the battery pack.
The best way to extend the life of your battery is to use them regularly at maximum capacity. This will help prevent the battery from depleting prematurely. Batteries should also not be stored in low temperatures or exposed to high temperatures for long periods of time.
Rechargeable batteries should not be disposed of in landfill sites. Doing so could result in harmful chemicals being released into the environment. Instead, dispose of batteries according to local laws and regulations regarding waste disposal.
This capability decline (aging) is irreversible. As the battery's capacity depletes, the amount of time it can power the product (run time) diminishes. There are several factors that affect the aging rate of individual batteries, including the state of health of the battery when it is shipped to or received by the customer.
Lithium-ion batteries become less efficient at storing energy as they age. This reduction in efficiency may not be apparent when you first buy your battery pack because its average use life is still relatively short. However, if you use all the batteries in your pack within five years, they will have lost nearly all of their initial storage capacity.
As with any other type of rechargeable battery, batteries lose charge over time. But the rate at which this loss occurs depends on many factors such as how often you use your battery powered device, what kind of device you use it in, and how old the battery is when you purchase it. Batteries that are not used regularly will lose charge more quickly than those that are used frequently. Batteries that are kept at a constant temperature also will lose charge more slowly than those that vary greatly between hot and cold.
Despite the fact that lithium-ion batteries may be recharged quickly, they do not last forever. Their capacity to hold a charge will eventually diminish, and the battery will need to be replaced. This does not happen very often all at once. Rather, it's more of a slow decay into failure over time. However, if you keep the rechargeable battery in good condition, then it can be recharged and reused for many years.
The number of charges a battery can receive depends on how it is being used. If the battery is being charged up each time it is used, then it will wear out faster. But even if a battery is not being charged immediately after use, it can still be recharged later. Most batteries are designed to be recharged up to 100 times before they become unusable.
Batteries can be recharged in two ways: either by connecting them back to their charger or using special rechargeable battery chargers. Batteries cannot be recharged too frequently because this will cause them to fail prematurely. It is best to try and recharge a battery as soon as possible after it has been discharged so that it can retain its full capacity.
Different Batteries and Their Shelf Lives
|Battery Type||Self-Discharge||Shelf Life In Years|
|Rechargeable Alkaline||Very Slow (<0.5%/month)||4-7 Years|
|Alkaline||Very slow (retains 80% capacity after 5-7 years)||10 Years|
|Lithium||Very slow (loses 0.6% per year)||7-15 Years|
|Carbon Zinc / Zinc Chloride||Fast||2-3 Years|
Check the charge status of the battery on a regular basis. If it is significantly low, then recharge it before it drains out.
However, according to US Department of Energy study, the reason lithium-ion batteries lose their charge over time is due to an undesired chemical interaction. The more cycles you charge, the more crystals form, and you lose efficiency and capacity. When you get to 100% capacity, it's like putting a full charge in every day for a year - that's how much damage it does.
Lithium-ion batteries become less efficient at storing energy as they cycle through use and recharging. As long as they are used properly, there are no safety concerns with recycled batteries. The only real risk is if someone were to put a recycled battery into a device not designed for recycled batteries. In this case, there could be electrical components damaged by any material remaining in the battery. This would most likely cause a fire or harmful electrical short circuit.
Batteries contain chemicals that can leak out during recycling. These chemicals can be toxic if they contact your skin or enter your body through your mouth or lungs. Batteries should never be disposed of with household garbage. They should be taken to a recycling center instead. Recycling batteries prevents them from getting thrown away in landfills, which is good for the environment.
Modern batteries are made from petroleum products, so they release carbon dioxide when burned. Organic batteries such as lead acid batteries have similar problems.
When not in use, many ready-to-use rechargeable batteries lose capacity. That is why you must still charge them before using them. This is referred to as self-discharge. They keep 90 percent of their capacity after one year, 80 percent after three years, and 70 percent after ten years in storage. Lithium-ion batteries are different in that they retain more than 85 percent of their capacity after five years.
Self-discharge varies depending on the type of battery. Here are some general estimates:
Lithium-ion batteries - about 5 percent per month at 20 degrees C (68 degrees F); about 10 percent per year.
NiMH batteries - around 0.5 percent per month at 20 degrees C; 1 percent per year.
What causes self-discharge? It is mostly due to loss of water from the battery during storage. This is especially true for lithium batteries which are sensitive to dry conditions. The metal inside the battery reacts with oxygen to form a solid layer that blocks some of the pores in the anode. So, to avoid this problem, make sure that your batteries are kept in a well-ventilated area out of reach of children or animals.
How do I prevent self-discharge? You should store your batteries in a dry place away from heat sources.