Simply said, these are the changes in direction on a drainage system that are typically accessible in most materials ranging from 11 1/4 to 90 degrees. There are long and short radius bends available, and they can be simple terminated (clay) or single or double socket (underground plastic). Longitudinal joints in the conduit can also be fitted with caps.
Bends in pipes are necessary for proper drainage and flow of water through your property. Without them, water would accumulate in one area until it reached a point where it could not go any further. This is called a "standing pool" and it is extremely dangerous for children to play in. Bends are also useful for connecting various parts of your property's drainage system together: for example, a straight section of pipe may connect to a right angle to form a loop configuration. These connections are called junctions and they can be anything from a simple cap to an underground junction box.
There are two types of bends used in drainage systems: the half-circle bend and the full-circle bend. A half-circle bend has a slope of 45 degrees or less while a full-circle bend has a slope of 90 degrees or more. Because of this difference in slope, half-circle bends can only accommodate water flowing at angles closer to perpendicular directions, while full-circle bends can handle water coming from any angle. Half-circle bends are generally used in residential systems while full-circle bends are usually found in commercial properties.
Rest Bends: These join soil stacks and ground-floor sanitary appliances to subterranean drains. It permits everything that comes out of the toilet pan to flow through to the drains. The bottom of the curve should never be closer to the drain floor connection immediately above the soil stack than 450 mm. Otherwise, water could block the drain.
Bendicants: These are bends in overground or underground pipes used for drainage. They can be created by using pipe fittings such as elbows or tanks. For example, if an underground storm drain becomes blocked, it can be unblocked by inserting a tool into the drain and creating a small opening through which water can flow.
The term "bend" is also used for similar structures in ducts and cables. For example, when installing a heating or air-conditioning system, a plumber may have to make several 90-degree bends during a single run. Or, when wiring a home, a cable may have to be routed through a series of bends.
Bends are necessary in piping systems to direct fluid away from certain areas of the building to prevent damage or contamination of these areas. For example, if a bathroom is too close to a kitchen sink, then the flow of water from the faucet will cause dirt to be pulled up from under the sink along with the water. This would be undesirable because it would likely end up on the towel bar or bathtub surround.
These bends, known as "expansion loops," are required to compensate for thermal expansion in steel pipes. These loops must also include high point vents (to eliminate vapor pockets) and low point drains to guarantee fluid drainage as necessary.
The length of each loop is based on the expected temperature increase during operation. For example, if a pipeline is expected to reach 200 degrees Fahrenheit, the manufacturer will specify that it be equipped with a 20-foot expansion loop. This means that within 20 feet along the line, the pipe can expand by 1/4 inch due to heat. The bend at the end of this section would need to be slightly underslung to allow for this expansion.
As you can see, oil and natural gas pipelines are not exactly uniform cylinders. There are various factors that go into determining what size curve should be used at any particular location on the line. However, for the most part, pipelines are designed with enough expansion room so that they do not have to be cut apart to remove an obstruction. If a large object were to become lodged inside the pipe, however, it might cause the pipe to fail mechanically sooner rather than later.
Pipelines are buried to prevent damage from water and other elements. But this also means that they are out of sight and inaccessible for many years after they are installed.
PATTERN OF ANNULAR DRAINAGE: A drainage system that consists of small holes or slots in the surface designed to collect water and allow it to seep into the ground. The term "drainage pattern" refers to the arrangement of these holes or slots-whether they are large or small, spaced closely together or far apart-and what type of material they are made of. Some patterns are used more than others depending on the type of soil and the amount of rain or snow that falls. When planning for new drainage, try to choose an approach that will work best with your site conditions and budget.
There are two basic types of drainage patterns: open and closed. Open patterns are those in which there is no boundary between the area drained by each hole or slot. Soil and vegetation can grow up around the holes or slots, but they must always remain open. This type of system is most effective for dry sites where there is little chance of excavation damage. The open pattern is also useful when trying to prevent sediment from entering the storm drain system from upstream areas. It cannot be used if you need to remove all sediment from the water because some will always get through.
A lateral drain is a portion of drain that extends beyond the perimeter of a building and connects with drains from neighboring buildings to form a sewer. Sewers (sewerage) are subterranean networks of pipes that transport sewage (waste water and feces), waste water, and surface water run-off, etc. Away from buildings, these underground networks connect to other streets or sewers through manholes or vents.
Lateral drains can be above or below ground. They may be single-pipe structures with an opening at each end or they may consist of several parallel trenches with open sides or caps. Lateral drains collect water flowing toward them from multiple directions. This helps ensure even distribution throughout the day of any excessive amounts of precipitation.
Lateral drains serve two main purposes: first, they provide a means for removing water away from buildings into local storm drains; second, they help prevent flooding by collecting and diverting runoff water away from houses and businesses. Because lateral drains lead directly to public streets or waterways, they must be constructed according to certain codes. For example, if there is any chance that they could cause erosion or pollution, they must be made of durable material.
Codes also require that lateral drains be able to handle the maximum expected flow within a short period of time. For this reason, they usually aren't smaller than 2 inches in diameter.