This is referred to as a "hot/ground" electric fence. Also, in the ground system, only galvanized steel should be used. Copper components, for example, might produce electrolysis and damage the system's connections over time. When connecting ground rods and fence wires, always use a high-quality galvanized clamp. Do not use sheet metal screws or nails - they will corrode over time.
Electric fencing provides livestock with its own form of protection from predators and other animals while allowing farmers to control their animals' movements without using physical restraints such as chains or ropes. Electric fencing systems consist of two primary parts: fence wires and gate switches. The fence wires are the actual barriers that extend across pasture lands or other areas where livestock are kept. These fences can be either hot-wire systems or live-edge systems. Hot-wire systems contain two groups of wires: a hot group and a neutral group. Current flows through the hot group, which creates a heat source that will cause any animal to avoid contact with it. The neutral group is always also grounded together at one end, so it cannot provide a path for current to flow. Live-edge systems use wooden slats as fence posts. Each post has two horizontal wires running through it. As long as these wires remain insulated from each other, the system will work just like a hot-wire system. However, if one or both of the wires is exposed, then it becomes a dangerous obstacle for animals to cross.
If the fence extends more than 500m from the main earth, an extra earth line must be added to the bottom of the fence and a stake buried at those intervals. Because wire is a better conductor than ground, installing a ground rod every +/-500 meters will considerably improve the fence's efficiency. Grounding the main wire to the rod helps prevent current from flowing through the person or animal touching the wire.
The easiest way to increase the power of your electric fence is by adding more fence wires. The more wires that are used in a fence circuit, the greater the voltage differential between them when current is flowing into them. This increases the "strength" of the circuit as well as its effectiveness as a barrier. Of course, this also means you will need more outlets in your meter box or fence post battery charger. There is no real limit to the number of wires you can use in a fence circuit except for space limitations. If you need to keep the distance between wires constant to avoid interference with each other's signals, you should plan on using at least three wires in a circuit.
It is also possible to buy pre-made fences that have additional wires attached to them in order to make them stronger. For example, a triple wire fence includes three parallel wires running along the inside perimeter of the fence which serve to divide up the area into smaller sections, thereby making it harder for someone to cross the fence.
Inadequate ground systems can be blamed for a number of poor-performing fence systems. To function effectively, every system needs have at least three ground rods. If your electric fence is erected on sandy, dry, or rocky soil, you need add more ground rods. Frozen soil will also make it difficult for your fence to operate. You should install ground cables at intervals of 30 feet along the border of your property.
If you own a farm or ranch, you should consider installing a wireless fence transmitter. These devices send out a signal when an animal approaches so you can move your fence posts without having to check each one individually. Wireless fence transmitters are available for most species including cows, sheep, pigs, and horses.
Electric fences can be divided into two general types: single phase and three phase. Three-phase electric fencing is usually more durable because there are three separate circuits that can carry current if one section breaks. This type of fence requires more work to erect since you must dig post-hole pits in which to place the fence posts, but they last longer because there's less chance of electrical interference between posts.
Single-phase electric fencing uses one conductor to send current through the wire which then creates the effect of a fence. This type of system is easier to set up but it cannot handle more than 150 pounds of weight before failure occurs. It's best used for light security or training purposes.
Three 6 to 8 foot grounding rods, ground rod clamps, and 20 KV insulated connection wire comprise an excellent grounding system. Grounding rods can be made of copper or galvanized steel. Copper has the advantage of transporting electrical charges more effectively than galvanized rod. It may, however, be more costly. The number and length of rods depends on the severity of your dog's problem and your budget. If you have a small area, then three 6-foot rods should be sufficient.
Grounding rods must be deep enough in soil that only their exposed ends are in contact with the earth. If they're not deep enough, they will not provide a complete circuit when connected together at one end. Your local utility company will be able to advise you as to how deeply you need to drive your grounding rods.
When driving your first grounding rod, try to avoid hitting existing wires as they may have to be moved or replaced if they're damaged by the collision. Also, don't drill too close to your house foundation or pipes might be damaged by the hole.
After you've driven all your grounding rods, connect them together at one end. Use a clamp or some other means of restraining the rod so that it does not move when connecting the wires to it. Make sure that the insulated portion of each conductor is attached to the correct grounding rod. Strip about 1/4 inch off each conductor before connecting them together.