According to a 2018 Popular Mechanics story about American submarines in the Arctic, breaking through the ice needs precise planning. When that fails, the submarine must use cautious maneuvering to break through up to 9 feet (2.5 m) of sea ice. The process can take days or weeks.
Submarines were originally designed to operate under water, not above it. They are strong enough to break right through a lake bed if necessary, but they would quickly sink if they hit any solid objects on the surface. Submarine designers have come up with various ways to protect their ships from underwater damage, but keep in mind that if a torpedo hits a vessel's hull, it will most likely destroy it.
However, that does not mean that all forms of defense against submarines are lost when you go deep beneath the surface. In fact, some types of attacks work better at depth because of how some sensors work. For example, an acoustic sensor uses sound to detect other vessels or obstacles. These sensors are vulnerable to noise made by electric motors and pumps, so avoiding large structures such as islands or continents is important for success with this type of attack.
At depth, there is also less air pressure than on the surface. This means that some types of weapon can be used at depth without being affected by water pressure. For example, torpedoes are fired using electricity and do not depend on explosive charges to function.
Submarines on the surface According to a 2018 Popular Mechanics story about American submarines in the Arctic, breaking through the ice needs precise planning. Nuclear-powered missile submarines typically aim to remain concealed beneath Arctic ice since it effectively renders them undetectable to attackers. However not all submarine missions require them to stay hidden under water for long periods of time, so they need a way to communicate and travel over land or ice. The main type of communication used by submarines is radio wave, which can be transmitted over large distances at low cost. A nuclear-powered submarine uses its periscope as its eyes and ears above water; it detects enemies using radar and sees what life has left behind when it surfaces. The commander of a submarine team must decide how to use their resources wisely during a mission and whether to conceal their presence or go for speed.
Breaking through ice is a difficult task that requires heavy equipment. Submarines are very large ships, so they normally break through ice with their ramming gear turned off. This allows them to pass through narrow channels that normal cargo vessels could not fit through. When a submarine strikes an object with its tail, it breaks the force of the impact into small bits that cause little damage to the vessel. However, this cannot be done forever: after a few hits, the hull will become damaged and start leaking.
Submarines from the United States Navy have a long history of operations in the Arctic, including operations beneath the ice that covers much of the region. Surfacing through that ice is a typical aspect of submarine training up there, but even with that expertise, it's a tough task. More articles may be found on Business Insider's homepage.
Three Russian navy submarines broke through several feet of sea ice in the Arctic to surface within a few hundred feet of each other, marking one of the first times the difficult naval maneuver has been accomplished. The incident occurred on March 16, 1970, when the Soviet boats Kapitan Dranitsyn, Admiral Kuznetsov, and the Krasnoyarsk all breached the ice at approximately the same time. They were some 300 miles (500 km) from the Siberian coast.
The Kapitan Dranitsyn was detected by radar about 100 miles from shore. It was believed that she had run into trouble; however, nothing more was heard from her until she arrived at her destination six days later.