Sea walls, such as the one at Skara Brae in Scotland, are great examples of hard engineering, and have been threatened by coastal erosion. The sea wall is effective in returning wave energy to the sea and prevents the water from overtopping any lower natural barriers, resulting in floods. It should be noted that while sea walls work well on large scales, they can be ineffective on small scales.
Hard engineering solutions are often expensive and require significant effort to construct and maintain. However, they do provide maximum protection against extreme events. Coastal erosion has resulted in the destruction of many hard engineering projects in the past, demonstrating how vulnerable these structures are to serious flooding or storm surges.
Soft engineering solutions rely on natural processes to protect land and buildings near the coast from damage caused by high waves or severe storms. They can be anything from simple dunes to complex systems of breakwaters and groynes. The main advantage of soft engineering is its cost-effectiveness: since they do not require human intervention during extreme weather conditions, there is no risk of damage or loss of life. They can also reduce property damage due to flooding and beach erosion.
In conclusion, sea walls are useful tools for protecting important infrastructure such as roads and airports from damage caused by high waves or severe storms.
Examples Groynes, for example, are low barriers built at right angles to trap sediments that would otherwise be washed away by longshore drift. Seawalls are built to defend coasts from wave attack by absorbing wave energy. Hurdles are used as temporary traffic signals at road construction sites and at accident scenes. Bridges are constructed to carry loads over small gaps or chasms. Dams are created to control the flow of water into or out of lakes or rivers.
These are just a few examples of how engineers have had to solve hard problems in their work. There are many more ways that engineers have helped people in need achieve sustainable living conditions. For example: architects design houses that are safe for people to live in; geologists ensure that buildings are not built on top of dangerous caves; and civil engineers build bridges that are strong enough to support heavy traffic without collapsing.
The field of engineering is very diverse, with professionals working on projects ranging from personal devices (such as smartphones) to large-scale systems such as power plants and highways. It is possible to find employment as an engineer working on projects that use your technical knowledge to help others, such as engineers who work for defense companies or scientists who work for research institutions.
A seawall Sea walls are structures that are often created as part of a promenade and are designed to reduce erosion caused by wave attack. They can be made of wood, steel, masonry blocks, precast concrete modules, or in situ concrete. The choice of material depends on the location and expected loadings.
Wood is most commonly used for this purpose; it is affordable and easy to obtain. However, it is only suitable for moderate loads and is vulnerable to insects and decay. Wood also has a limiting effect on the height of the wall which can be built because it is expensive to transport large quantities of wood great distances.
Steel is the preferred material for high-load applications such as those found along the coast of Europe. It is durable, flexible, and able to withstand corrosive water. One disadvantage of using steel is its cost; you need a lot of it to build a wall that will have any effect on reducing flooding or ocean erosion.
Masonry is the traditional building material for sea walls. It is available in local materials so can be adapted to site conditions. Masons work closely with engineers to design effective sea walls using different sizes and shapes of stone or brick. They help to prevent erosion by holding soil back from the shoreline and forming a stable base upon which plants can grow.
Concrete is the most common material used in coastal construction today.